The Intergenerational Association Between Parents’ Problem Gambling and Impulsivity-Hyperactivity/Inattention Behaviors in Children
- 200 Downloads
Despite the well-established association between problem gambling and ADHD core categories of impulsivity-hyperactivity and inattention, the link between parents’ problem gambling and impulsivity-hyperactivity/inattention (IH/I) behaviors in children has not been investigated. This study investigated the association between parents’ problem gambling and children’s IH/I behaviors while controlling for potential confounding variables. A population-based prospective cohort followed-up from kindergarten to age 30, the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC), provided data over three generations. Among 1358 participants at age 30, parents with a child aged 1 year or older (N = 468; Mean age = 4.65 years; SD = 2.70) were selected. Generalized Linear Models included measures of grandparents’ and parents’ problem gambling, parents’ IH/I behaviors in childhood, and a host of risk factors and comorbidities to predict IH/I in children. Intergenerational bivariate associations were observed between grandparents’ problem gambling, parents’ IH/I in childhood and problem gambling at age 30, and between parents’ IH/I, problem gambling, and children’s IH/I behaviors. Parents’ problem gambling predicted children’s IH/I behaviors above and beyond the effects of covariates such as family and socioeconomic characteristics, alcohol and drug use, depression symptoms and parents’ gambling involvement. Parents’ IH/I behaviors in childhood also predicted children’s IH/I and had a moderating, enhancing effect on parents’ problem gambling association with their offspring’s IH/I behaviors. Problem gambling is a characteristic of parents’ mental health that is distinctively associated with children’s IH/I behaviors, above and beyond parents’ own history of IH/I and of typically related addictive, psychopathological or socioeconomic risk factors and comorbidities.
KeywordsProblem Gambling Parents Children Impulsivity-hyperactivity Inattention Parental influence
We thank the Quebec Government Ministry of Health, the Fond Quebecois de la Recherche sur la Societe et la Culture, Canada’s Social Science and Humanities Research Council, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research St-Justine Hospital’s Research Center, and the University of Montreal for financial support.
We thank the families and teachers of the Québec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC) for their collaboration to this project, and the staff of the Research Unit on Children’s Psychosocial Maladjustment for data collection and management.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Institutional Review Boards of the University of Montreal and Ste-Justine Hospital provided ethical approval. Therefore this study has been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
Informed consent has been appropriately obtained from all participants included in the study (grandparents and parents for their own participation and for consent/permission for children’s participation).
- Abbott, D. A., Cramer, S. L., & Sherrets, S. D. (1995). Pathological gambling and the family: Practice implications. Families in Society, 76, 213–219.Google Scholar
- Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms and profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.Google Scholar
- Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
- Bickel, W. K., Jarmolowicz, D. P., Mueller, E. T., Koffarnus, M. N., & Gatchalian, K. M. (2012). Excessive discounting of delayed reinforcers as a trans-disease process contributing to addiction and other disease-related vulnerabilities: Emerging evidence. Pharmacological Therapy, 134, 287–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bulmer, M. G. 1979. Principles of statistics. New York: Dover.Google Scholar
- Carbonneau, R., Boivin, M., Brendgen, M., Nagin, D., & Tremblay, R. E. (2016). Comorbid Development of Disruptive Behaviors from age 1½ to 5 years in a Population Birth-Cohort and Association with School Adjustment in First Grade. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44, 677–690.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Comings, D. E., Gonzalez, N., Wu, S., et al. (1999). Studies of the 48 bp repeat polymorphism of the DRD4 gene in impulsive, compulsive, addictive behaviors: Tourette syndrome, ADHD, pathological gambling, and substance abuse. American Journal of Human Genetics, 88, 358–368.Google Scholar
- Dowling, N. (2014). The impact of gambling problems on families (AGRC Discussion Paper No. 1). Melbourne: Australian Gambling Research Centre.Google Scholar
- Egger, H. L., & Angold, A. (2006). Common emotional and behavioural disorders in preschool children: presentation, nosology, and epidemiology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 313–337.Google Scholar
- Fontaine, N., Carbonneau, R., Barker, E. D., Vitaro, F., Hébert, M., Côté, S. M., et al. (2008). Girls’ hyperactivity and physical aggression during childhood and adjustment problems in early adulthood: A 15-year longitudinal study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 320–328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grall-Bronnec, M., Wainstein, L., Augy, J., Bouiu, G., Feuillet, F., Vénisse, J. L., & Sébille-Rivain, V. (2011). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among pathological and at-risk gamblers seeking treatment: a hidden disorder. European Addiction Research, 17, 231–240.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guo, S., & Fraser, M. W. (2010). Propensity score analysis: Statistical methods and applications. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Gustavson, K., & Borren, I. (2014). Bias in the study of prediction of change: a Monte Carlo simulation study of the effects of selective attrition and inappropriate modeling of regression toward the mean. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 14(133), 12p.Google Scholar
- Gustavson, K., von Soest, T., Karevold, E., & Roysamb, E. (2012). Attrition and generalizability in longitudinal studies: findings from a 15-year population-based study and a Monte Carlo simulation study. BMC Public Health, 12(918), 11 p.Google Scholar
- Hardin, J. H., & Hilbe, J. M. (2007). Generalized Linear Models and Extensions (2nd ed.). Stata Press, Texas: USA.Google Scholar
- Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Joanes, D. N., & Gill, C. A. (1998). Comparing Measures of Sample Skewness and Kurtosis. The Statistician, 47, 183–189.Google Scholar
- Keenan, K., & Wakschlag, L. S. (2004). Are oppositional defiant and conduct disorder symptoms normative behaviors in preschoolers? A comparison of referred and nonreferred children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 356–358.Google Scholar
- Mackey, S., Chaarani, B., Kan, K.-J., et al. (2016). Brain regions related to impulsivity mediate the effects of early adversity on antisocial behavior. Biological Psychiatry, Advance online publication.Google Scholar
- National Center for Responsible Gaming (2010). The 10 Most Influential Research Papers on Gambling Disorders. http://blog.ncrg.org/blog/2010/12/10-most-influential-research-papers-gambling-disorders.
- Pingault, J. B., Tremblay, R. E. T., Vitaro, F., et al. (2011). Childhood Trajectories of Inattention and Hyperactivity and Prediction of Educational Attainment in Early Adulthood: A 16-Year Longitudinal Population-Based Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 1164–1170.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pingault, J. B., Viding, E., Galéra, C., Greven, C. U., Zheng, Y., Plomin, R., et al. (2015). Genetic and environmental influences on the developmental course of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms from childhood to adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry, 72, 651–658.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Statistics Canada. (1995). Overview of Survey Instruments for 1994–1995 Data Collection. Cycle 1. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
- Tremblay, R. E. (2004). Physical aggression during early childhood: trajectories and predictors. Pediatrics, 114(1), e43–e50.Google Scholar