Advertisement

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 1241–1252 | Cite as

Distilling Heterogeneity among Children with Disruptive Behavior: Associations between Symptom Patterns and Social Functioning

  • Madison Aitken
  • Shanelle Henry
  • Brendan F. Andrade
Article

Abstract

Children with disruptive behavior (DB) are a heterogeneous group who exhibit several characteristics that may contribute to poor social functioning. The present study identified profiles of reactive aggression, proactive aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and prosocial behavior in a sample of children with DB. Associations with social functioning (social interaction, social status) were then examined, along with sex differences in profile membership. Parent ratings of 304 clinic-referred children ages 6–12 years with DB were analyzed using latent profile analysis. Five profiles were identified: 1) Moderate prosocial behavior, reactive aggression, and CU, and low proactive aggression (labelled Moderate); 2) Relatively high prosocial behavior and low reactive and proactive aggression and CU traits (Prosocial); 3) High prosocial behavior and reactive aggression, moderate proactive aggression, and low-moderate CU (Reactive-Prosocial); 4) Low prosocial behavior, high CU, high-moderate reactive aggression, and low-moderate proactive aggression (Reactive-CU); and 5) Low prosocial behavior and high reactive and proactive aggression and CU (Aggressive-CU). Profiles characterized by CU traits, reactive aggression, and low prosocial behavior were associated with the most problematic parent-rated social interaction and social status. The results highlight the need to differentiate profiles of psychopathology in children with DB to better address factors most associated with social functioning.

Keywords

Disruptive behavior Peer relationships Aggression Callous-unemotional traits Prosocial behavior 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Marcos Sanches for his guidance regarding the analyses.

Funding

Dr. Andrade’s research is funded by a New Investigator Fellowship (Ontario Mental Health Foundation) and Career Development Award (Canadian Child Health Clinician-Scientist Program).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all parents and assent from all children to participate in the study.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M., McConaughy, S. H., & Howell, C. T. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 213–232.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aitken, M., Martinussen, R., Wolfe, R. G., & Tannock, R. (2015). Factor structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a Canadian elementary school sample. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 40(3), 155–165.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1534508414560347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrade, B. F., & Wade, M. (2016). Latent profiles of externalizing psychopathology and their relation to children’s aggression and social behavior. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 37(6), 442–450.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrade, B. F., Browne, D. T., & Tannock, R. (2014a). Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders. PeerJ, 2, e487.  https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.487.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrade, B. F., Sorge, G. B., Na, J. J., & Wharton-Shukster, E. (2014b). Clinical profiles of children with disruptive behaviors based on the severity of their conduct problems, callous-unemotional traits and emotional difficulties. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 46, 567–576.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-014-0497-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andrade, B. F., Sorge, G. B., Djordjevic, D., & Naber, A. R. (2015). Callous–unemotional traits influence the severity of peer problems in children with impulsive/overactive and oppositional/defiant behaviors. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(8), 2183–2190.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-0021-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2014). Auxiliary variables in mixture modeling: Three-step approaches using Mplus. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 21, 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2014.915181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Atkins, M. S., Pelham, W. E., & Licht, M. H. (1988). The development and validation of objective classroom measures of conduct and attention deficit disorders. In R. J. Prinz (Ed.), Advances in behavioral assessment of children and families (pp. 3–31). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  9. Berger, C., Batanova, M., & Cance, J. D. (2015). Aggressive and prosocial? Examining latent profiles of behavior, social status, machiavellianism, and empathy. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0298-9.
  10. Bergman, L. R., & Magnusson, D. (1997). A person-oriented approach in research on developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 9(2), 291–319.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brennan, L. M., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2014). The predictive utility of early childhood disruptive behaviors for school-age social functioning. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(6), 1187–1199.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-014-9967-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Card, N. A., & Little, T. D. (2006). Proactive and reactive aggression in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analysis of differential relations with psychosocial adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30(5), 466–480.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025406071904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ciucci, E., Baroncelli, A., Franchi, M., Golmaryami, F. N., & Frick, P. J. (2014). The association between callous-unemotional traits and behavioral and academic adjustment in children: Further validation of the inventory of callous-unemotional traits. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 36(2), 189–200.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-013-9384-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Coppotelli, H. (1982). Dimensions and types of social status: A cross-age perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18(4), 557–570.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0012-1649.18.4.557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Collins, L. M., & Lanza, S. T. (2010). The latent class model. In Latent Class and Latent Transition Analysis (pp. 23–47). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  16. Crick, N. R. (1996). The role of overt aggression, relational aggression, and prosocial behavior in the prediction of children’s future social adjustment. Child Development, 67(5), 2317–2327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dadds, M. R., Fraser, J., & Hawes, D. J. (2005). Disentangling the underlying dimensions of psychopathy and conduct problems in childhood: a community study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3), 400–410.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.400.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dadds, M. R., Allen, J. L., McGregor, K., Woolgar, M., Viding, E., & Scott, S. (2014). Callous-unemotional traits in children and mechanisms of impaired eye contact during expressions of love: A treatment target? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 55(7), 771–780.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12155.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Deater-Deckard, K. (2001). Annotation: Recent research examining the role of peer relationships in the development of psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 42(5), 565–579.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00753.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dirks, M. A., De Los Reyes, A., Briggs-Gowan, M., Cella, D., & Wakschlag, L. S. (2012). Annual research review: Embracing not erasing contextual variability in children’s behavior - Theory and utility in the selection and use of methods and informants in developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(5), 558–574.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02537.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social-information-processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children’s peer groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(6), 1146–1158.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.53.6.1146.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Eisenberg, N., & Miller, P. A. (1987). The relation of empathy to prosocial and related behaviors. Psychological Bulletin, 101(1), 91–119.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.101.1.91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Karbon, M., Murphy, B. C., Wosinski, M., Polazzi, L., et al. (1996). The relations of children’s dispositional prosocial behavior to emotionality, regulation, and social functioning. Child Development, 67, 974–992.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1131874.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Fanti, K. A. (2013). Individual, social, and behavioral factors associated with co-occurring conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(5), 811–824.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-013-9726-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fanti, K. A., Frick, P. J., & Georgiou, S. (2009). Linking callous-unemotional traits to instrumental and non-instrumental forms of aggression. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31(4), 285–298.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-008-9111-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Show me the child at seven: The consequences of conduct problems in childhood for psychosocial functioning in adulthood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(8), 837–849.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00387.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Frick, P. J. (2004). Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits. New Orleans: University of New Orleans.Google Scholar
  28. Frick, P. J., & Hare, R. D. (2001). Antisocial Processes Screening Device. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  29. Frick, P. J., Cornell, A. H., Barry, C. T., Bodin, S. D., & Dane, H. E. (2003). Callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems in the prediction of conduct problem severity, aggression, and self-report of delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31(4), 457–470.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023899703866.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Frick, P. J., Ray, J. V., Thornton, L. C., & Kahn, R. E. (2013). Can callous-unemotional traits enhance the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of serious conduct problems in children and adolescents? A comprehensive review. Psychological Bulletin, 140(1), 1–57.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033076.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Frick, P. J., Ray, J. V., Thornton, L. C., & Kahn, R. E. (2014). Annual research review: A developmental psychopathology approach to understanding callous-unemotional traits in children and adolescents with serious conduct problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(6), 532–548.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Glascoe, F. P. (2003). Parents’ evaluation of developmental status: How well do parents’ concerns identify children with behavioral and emotional problems? Clinical Pediatrics, 42(2), 133–138.Google Scholar
  33. Goodman, R. (1997). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(11), 581–586.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200111000-00015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gresham, F. M., Elliott, S. N., Cook, C. R., Vance, M. J., & Kettler, R. J. (2010). Cross-informant agreement for ratings for social skill and problem behavior ratings: An investigation of the Social Skills Improvement System—Rating Scales. Psychological Assessment, 22(1), 157.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Haapasalo, J., Tremblay, R. E., Boulerice, B., & Vitaro, F. (2000). Relative advantages of person- and variable-based approaches for predicting problem behaviors from kindergarten assessments. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 16(2), 145–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hawes, D. J., & Dadds, M. R. (2007). Stability and malleability of callous - unemotional traits during treatment for childhood conduct problems. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36(3), 347–355.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410701444298.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hawes, S. W., Byrd, A. L., Henderson, C. E., Gazda, R. L., Burke, J. D., Loeber, R., & Pardini, D. A. (2014). Refining the parent-reported Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in boys with conduct problems. Psychological Assessment, 26(1), 256–266.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034718.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hawley, P. H., Little, T. D., & Pasupathi, M. (2002). Winning friends and influencing peers: Strategies of peer influence in late childhood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26(5), 466–474.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01650250143000427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hay, D. F., & Pawlby, S. (2003). Prosocial development in relation to children’s and mothers’ psychological problems. Child Development, 74(5), 1314–1327.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00609.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hay, D. F., Payne, A., & Chadwick, A. (2004). Peer relations in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(1), 84–108.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0021-9630.2003.00308.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoza, B., Mrug, S., Gerdes, A. C., Hinshaw, S. P., Bukowski, W. M., Gold, J. A., et al. (2005). What aspects of peer relationships are impaired in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3), 411–423.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.411.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hunsley, J., & Mash, E. J. (2007). Evidence-based assessment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 29–51.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091419.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Johnston, C., Pelham, W. E., & Murphy, H. (1985). Peer relationships in ADDH and normal children: A developmental analysis of peer and teacher ratings. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13(1), 89–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Katz, L. F., Hessler, D. M., & Annest, A. (2007). Domestic violence, emotional competence, and child adjustment. Social Development, 16(3), 513–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Keiley, M. K., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2000). A cross-domain growth analysis: Externalizing and internalizing behaviors during 8 years of childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28(2), 161–179.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Kimonis, E. R., Frick, P. J., Boris, N. W., Smyke, A. T., Cornell, A. H., Farrell, J. M., & Zeanah, C. H. (2006). Callous-unemotional features, behavioral inhibition, and parenting: Independent predictors of aggression in a high-risk preschool sample. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(6), 741–752.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-006-9047-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kornbluh, M., & Neal, J. W. (2016). Examining the many dimensions of children’s popularity: Interactions between aggression, prosocial behaviors, and gender. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 33, 62–80.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407514562562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lochman, J. E., & The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1995). Screening of child behavior problems for prevention programs at school entry. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(4), 549–559.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006X.63.4.549.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Loeber, R., Green, S. M., Lahey, B. B., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1991). Differences and similarities between children, mothers, and teachers as informants on disruptive child behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19(1), 75–95.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00910566.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Mikami, A. Y., & Normand, S. (2015). The importance of social contextual factors in peer relationships of children with ADHD. Current Developmental Disorders Reports, 2(1), 30–37.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40474-014-0036-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Miller-Johnson, S., Coie, J. D., Maumary-Gremaud, A., Bierman, K., & The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2002). Peer rejection and aggression and early starter models of conduct disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(3), 217–230 Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2774087/pdf/nihms147869.pdf.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Moran, P., Rowe, R., Flach, C., Briskman, J., Ford, T., Maughan, B., et al. (2009). Predictive value of callous-unemotional traits in a large community sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(11), 1079–1084.  https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181b766ab.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Muthén, B. O., & Muthén, L. K. (2000). Integrating person-centered and variable-centered analyses: growth mixture modeling with latent trajectory classes. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 24(6), 882–891.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus User’s Guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  55. Nylund, K. L., Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: A Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(4), 535–569.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510701575396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Offord, D. R., Boyle, M. H., Racine, Y., Szatmari, P., Fleming, J. E., Sanford, M., & Lipman, E. L. (1996). Integrating assessment data from multiple informants. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(8), 1078–1085.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199608000-00019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Okado, Y., & Bierman, K. L. (2014). Differential risk for late adolescent conduct problems and mood dysregulation among children with early externalizing behavior problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(4), 735–747.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-014-9931-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pardini, D. A., & Fite, P. J. (2010). Symptoms of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and callous-unemotional traits as unique predictors of psychosocial maladjustment in boys: Advancing an evidence base for DSM-V. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(11), 1134–1144.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2010.07.010.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Pelham, W. E., & Bender, M. E. (1982). Peer relationships in hyperactive children. In K. D. Gadow & I. Bailer (Eds.), Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities (pp. 366–436). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  60. Pelham, W. E., Milich, R., Murphy, D. A., & Murphy, H. A. (1989). Normative data on the IOWA Conners teacher rating scale. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18(3), 259–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Polman, H., Orobio De Castro, B., Koops, W., Van Boxtel, H. W., & Merk, W. W. (2007). A meta-analysis of the distinction between reactive and proactive aggression in children and adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(4), 522–535.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9109-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Poulin, F., & Boivin, M. (2000). Reactive and proactive aggression: evidence of a two-factor model. Psychological Assessment, 12(2), 115–122.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.12.2.115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Price, J. M., & Dodge, K. A. (1989). Reactive and proactive aggression in childhood: Relations to peer status and social context dimensions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 17(4), 455–471.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00915038.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Renk, K., & Phares, V. (2004). Cross-informant ratings of social competence in children and adolescents. Clinical Psychology Review, 24(2), 239–254.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2004.01.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W. M., & Parker, J. (2006). Peer interactions, relationships, and groups. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 571–645). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  66. Song, J. H., Waller, R., Hyde, L. W., & Olson, S. L. (2016). Early callous-unemotional behavior, theory-of-mind, and a fearful/inhibited temperament predict externalizing problems in middle and late childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(6), 1205–1215.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0099-3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Stone, L. L., Otten, R., Engels, R. C., Vermulst, A., & Janssens, J. M. (2010). Psychometric properties of the parent and teacher versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for 4- to 12-Year-olds: a review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 13, 254–274.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-010-0071-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Useche, A. C., Sullivan, A. L., Merk, W., & de Castro, B. O. (2014). Relationships of aggression subtypes and peer status among aggressive boys in general education and emotional/behavioral disorder (EBD) classrooms. Exceptionality, 22(2), 111–128.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09362835.2013.865529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. van Lier, P. A., & Koot, H. M. (2010). Developmental cascades of peer relations and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing problems from kindergarten to fourth-grade elementary school. Development and Psychopathology, 22(3), 569–582.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579410000283.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Verhulst, F. C., Koot, H. M., & van der Ende, J. (1994). Differential predictive value of parents’ and teachers’ reports of children’s problem behaviors: a longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22(5), 531–546.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Viding, E., Simmonds, E., Petrides, K. V., & Frederickson, N. (2009). The contribution of callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems to bullying in early adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 50(4), 471–481.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02012.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Waschbusch, D. A., & Willoughby, M. T. (2008). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and callous-unemotional traits as moderators of conduct problems when examining impairment and aggression in elementary school children. Aggressive Behavior, 34(2), 139–153.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20224.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Waschbusch, D. A., Willoughby, M. T., & Pelham Jr., W. E. (1998). Criterion validity and the utility of reactive and proactive aggression: Comparisons to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and other measures of functioning. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(4), 396–405.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2704_3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Waschbusch, D. A., Porter, S., Carrey, N., Kazmi, S. O., Roach, K. A., & D’Amico, D. A. (2004). Investigation of the heterogeneity of disruptive behaviour in elementary-age children. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 36(2), 97–112.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0087221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Waschbusch, D. A., Graziano, P. A., Willoughby, M. T., & Pelham, W. E. (2015). Classroom rule violations in elementary school students with callous-unemotional traits. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 23(3), 180–192.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1063426614552903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wentzel, K., & McNamara, C. (1999). Interpersonal relationships, emotional distress, and prosocial behavior in middle school. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19(1), 114–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Madison Aitken
    • 1
  • Shanelle Henry
    • 1
    • 2
  • Brendan F. Andrade
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Child, Youth and Emerging Adult ProgramTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Applied Psychology and Human Development, Ontario Institute for Studies in EducationUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations