Does Preschool Self-Regulation Predict Later Behavior Problems in General or Specific Problem Behaviors?
- 1.2k Downloads
Findings from prior research have consistently indicated significant associations between self-regulation and externalizing behaviors. Significant associations have also been reported between children’s language skills and both externalizing behaviors and self-regulation. Few studies to date, however, have examined these relations longitudinally, simultaneously, or with respect to unique clusters of externalizing problems. The current study examined the influence of preschool self-regulation on general and specific externalizing behavior problems in early elementary school and whether these relations were independent of associations between language, self-regulation, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of 815 children (44% female). Additionally, given a general pattern of sex differences in the presentations of externalizing behavior problems, self-regulation, and language skills, sex differences for these associations were examined. Results indicated unique relations of preschool self-regulation and language with both general externalizing behavior problems and specific problems of inattention. In general, self-regulation was a stronger longitudinal correlate of externalizing behavior for boys than it was for girls, and language was a stronger longitudinal predictor of hyperactive/impulsive behavior for girls than it was for boys.
KeywordsSelf-regulation Executive function Externalizing behavior Inattention Preschool
This research was supported by grants from the Institute of Education Sciences (R324E06086 & R305B090021). Preparation of this work was supported by a grant from the Eunice Kennedy Schriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (HD052120). The views expressed herein are those of the authors and have not been reviewed or approved by the granting agencies.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study (i.e., parents or guardians provided informed consent/permission for children’s participation).
- Allan, N. P., Wilson, S. B., & Lonigan, C. J. (2017). Does gender moderate the relation between externalizing behavior and key emergent literacy abilities? Evidence from a longitudinal study. Journal of Attention Disorders.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
- Berry, D., Blair, C., Willoughby, M. W., Granger, D., & Family Life Project Investigators. (2012). Resting salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol in infancy and toddlerhood: direct and indirect relations with executive functioning in early childhood and academic ability in prekindergarten. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37, 1700–1711.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blair, C., Ursache, A., Greenberg, M., Vernon-Feagans, L., & Family Life Project Investigators. (2015). Multiple aspects of self-regulation uniquely predict mathematics but not letter-word knowledge in the early elementary grades. Developmental Psychology, 51, 459–472.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Bracken, B. A. (2002). Bracken school readiness assessment. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Gioia, G. A., Espy, K. A., & Isquith, P. K. (2003). BRIEF-P: behavior rating inventory of executive function--preschool version: professional manual. Lutz: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
- Hughes, C., & Ensor, R. (2011). Individual differences in growth in executive function across the transition to school predict externalizing and internalizing behaviors and self-perceived academic success at 6 years of age. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 663–676.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lakes, K. D., Swanson, J. M., & Riggs, M. (2012). The reliability and validity of the English and Spanish strengths and weaknesses of ADHD and normal behavior rating scales in a preschool sample: continuum measures of hyperactivity and inattention. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 510–516.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lonigan, C. J., Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. (2007). Test of preschool early literacy. Austin: ProEd.Google Scholar
- Lonigan, C. J., Allan, D. M., & Phillips, B. M. (2017). Examining the predictive relations between two aspects of self-regulation and growth in preschool children’s early literacy skills. Developmental Psychology, 53, 63-76.Google Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus User’s Guide (Seventh ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Raaijmakers, M. A. J., Smidts, D. P., Sergeant, J. A., Maassen, G. H., Posthumus, J. A., van Engeland, H., & Matthys, W. (2008). Executive functions in preschool children with aggressive behavior: impairments in inhibitory control. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 63, 1097–1107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ramtekkar, U. P., Reiersen, A. M., Todorov, A. A., & Todd, R. D. (2010). Sex and age differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and diagnoses: implications for DSM-V and ICD-11. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 217–228.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Spiegel, J. A., Lonigan, C. J., Phillips, B. M. (2017). Factor structure and utility of the behavior rating inventory of executive function–preschool version. Psychological Assessment., In press.Google Scholar
- Sulik, M. J., Blair, C., Mills-Koonce, R., Berry, D., Greenberg, M., & The Family Life Project Investigators. (2015). Early parenting and the development of externalizing behavior problems: longitudinal mediation through children’s executive function. Child Development, 86, 1588–1603.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Swanson, J.M., Schuck, S., Mann, M, Carlson, C., Hartman, K., Sergeant, J., & McCleary, R. (2001). Categorical and dimensional definitions and evaluations of symptoms of ADHD: The SNAP and SWAN rating scales. Retrieved from http://adhd.net.