Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 45, Issue 7, pp 1413–1427 | Cite as

The Longitudinal Relation between Daily Hassles and Depressive Symptoms among Unaccompanied Refugees in Norway

  • Serap KelesEmail author
  • Thormod Idsøe
  • Oddgeir Friborg
  • Selcuk Sirin
  • Brit Oppedal


The aim of the present longitudinal study is to understand the longitudinal relation between depressive symptoms and daily hassles (i.e., general and acculturation hassles) in a high-risk population of unaccompanied refugees. We investigated the validity of three stress-mental health models: the stress exposure model, the stress generation model, and the reciprocal model. Data were collected from 918 unaccompanied refugees in Norway in three waves. Of the initial sample, the majority (82.1%) were male (M age = 19.01 years, SD = 2.54 years). The data were analyzed with auto-regressive cross-lagged modeling and latent growth curve modeling. The results supported the stress exposure model for the relation between depressive symptoms and acculturation hassles, indicating that acculturation hassles predicted the subsequent levels of depressive symptoms rather than vice versa. On the other hand, the reciprocal model was supported for the relation between depressive symptoms and general hassles indicating a bidirectional, mutual relation. Unconditional latent growth models further showed that depression level remained unchanged over time, while levels of acculturation and general hassles decreased. The implications for clinical practice and immigration policy are discussed.


Unaccompanied refugee minors Depressive symptoms Daily hassles Acculturation stress Longitudinal analyses 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10802_2016_251_MOESM1_ESM.docx (28 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 28 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Serap Keles
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Thormod Idsøe
    • 1
    • 2
  • Oddgeir Friborg
    • 3
  • Selcuk Sirin
    • 4
  • Brit Oppedal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Child Development and Mental Health, Division of Mental HealthNorwegian Institute of Public HealthOsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of Research, Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral DevelopmentOsloNorway
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUiT The Arctic University of NorwayTromsøNorway
  4. 4.Department of Applied PsychologyNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA

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