Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Adolescence: Longitudinal Course, Trajectories, and Intrapersonal Predictors
- 1.5k Downloads
Although prevalence rates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been established throughout adolescence, little is known about the progression of NSSI, and consequently, about the risk factors for youth NSSI engagement. This study aimed to describe the overall longitudinal course of NSSI and the latent trajectory classes of NSSI in a population-based sample of adolescents using multi-wave data. Moreover, this study examined whether sex, lifetime history of depression, rumination, and negative attributional style predicted the longitudinal course of NSSI and trajectory group membership. Participants were 617 Chinese adolescents in Grades 10 through 12 (51.4 % girls). NSSI was assessed across eight waves of data. History of depression, rumination, and negative attributional style were assessed at baseline. Latent growth curve modeling revealed that only lifetime depression predicted the longitudinal course of NSSI from Grades 10 to 12, with depressed adolescents showing greater and more stable NSSI engagement over time than non-depressed adolescents. Group-based trajectory modeling yielded three distinct trajectory classes of NSSI engagement: low (69.2 %), moderate (26.1 %), and chronic (4.7 %). Negative attributional style distinguished adolescents in the chronic vs. low and moderate NSSI trajectory classes. Sex, rumination, and lifetime depression predicted membership in the chronic and/or moderate vs. low NSSI trajectory class. NSSI trajectory classes, based on frequency of NSSI, exist and are differentiated by sex, depression history, rumination, and negative attributional style. This study suggests that during this period of adolescence NSSI may be a relatively stable behavior, especially for some adolescents. Negative attributional style may be a salient risk factor for chronic NSSI engagement.
KeywordsNSSI Adolescents Latent trajectory classes Depression Attributional style Rumination
This work was supported by a research grant from the Social Sciences and Research Council of Canada awarded to John R. Z. Abela. This article is dedicated to the loving memory of John R. Z. Abela, whose tragic and untimely death in June 2010 left him unable to complete analyses of these data.
Conflict of Interest
The authors of this manuscript have no conflicts of interest or financial interests relevant to the subject of this manuscript. The authors of this manuscript take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis, and all authors had full access to all the data in the study.
- Barrocas, A. L., Jenness, J. L., Davis, T. S., Oppenheimer, C. W., Technow, J. R., Gulley, L. D., et al. (2011). Developmental perspectives on vulnerability to nonsuicidal self-injury in youth. In J. Benson (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 40, pp. 301–336). London: Elseiver.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chambers, W. J., Puig-Antich, J., Hirsch, M., Paez, P., Ambrosini, P. J., Tabrizi, M. A., et al. (1985). The assessment of affective disorders in children and adolescents by semistructured interview: test-retest reliability of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-Age children, present episode version. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 696–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cornette, M., Abramson, L. Y., & Bardone, A. (2000). Toward an integrated theory of suicidal behaviors: Merging the hopelessness, self-discrepancy, and escape theories. In T. E. Joiner & M. D. Rudd (Eds.), Suicide science: Expanding the boundaries (pp. 43–66). Boston: Kluwer.Google Scholar
- Dekker, M. C., Ferdinand, R. F., van Lang, N. D. J., Bongers, I. L., van der Ende, J., & Verhulst, F. C. (2007). Developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms from early childhood to late adolescence: gender differences and adult outcome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 657–666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hankin, B. L., Carter, I., Lakdawalla, Z., Abela, J. R. Z., & Adams, P. (2007). Are neuroticism, cognitive vulnerability and self-esteem overlapping or distinct risks for depression? Evidence from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26, 29–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hong, W., Abela, J. R. Z., Cohen, J. R., Sheshko, D. M., Shi, X. T., Van Hamel, A., et al. (2010). Rumination as a vulnerability factor to depression in adolescents in mainland China: lifetime history of clinically significant depressive episodes. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39, 849–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Joiner, T. E. (2005). Why people die by suicide. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Rao, U., & Ryan, N. (1996). Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). Pittsburgh: Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic.Google Scholar
- Kessler, R. C., Angermeyer, M., Anthony, J. C., de Graaf, R., Demyttenaere, K., Gasquet, I., et al. (2007). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the world health Organization’s world mental health survey initiative. World Psychiatry, 6, 168–176.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Madge, N., Hewitt, A., Hawton, K., de Wilde, E. J., Corcoran, P., Fekete, S., et al. (2008). Deliberate self-harm within an international community sample of young people: comparative findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) study. Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 667–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muthén & Muthén (1998–2010). Mplus user’s guide. Sixth edition. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Nagin, D. S. (2005). Group-based modeling of development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- National Bureau of Statistics of China. (2006). The China 2005 statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press.Google Scholar
- Prinstein, M. J., Nock, M. K., Simon, V., Aikins, J. W., Cheah, C. S. L., & Spirito, A. (2008). Longitudinal trajectories and predictors of adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts following inpatient hospitalization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 92–103.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Prinstein, M. J., Heilbron, N., Guerry, J. D., Franklin, J. C., Rancourt, D., Simon, V., et al. (2010). Peer influence and nonsuicidal self injury: longitudinal results in community and clinically-referred adolescent samples. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 669–682.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sterba, S. K., & Bauer, D. J. (2010). Matching method with theory in person-oriented developmental psychopathology research. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 239254.Google Scholar
- Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism & Collectivism. Westview Press.Google Scholar