Advertisement

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 42, Issue 7, pp 1213–1224 | Cite as

Stability and Change of ODD, CD and ADHD Diagnosis in Referred Preschool Children

  • Tessa L. BunteEmail author
  • Kim Schoemaker
  • David J. Hessen
  • Peter G. M. van der Heijden
  • Walter Matthys
Article

Abstract

Longitudinal studies have shown that preschool children’s diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are likely to persist into school age. However, limited attention has been paid to instability of diagnosis. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate both stability and change of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis in children aged 3.5–5.5 years. For diagnosing these disorders, a semi-structured diagnostic parent interview, i.e., the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule (K-DBDS), was used at the first assessment and at follow-up assessments (9 and 18 months). Five diagnostic stability groups (chronic, partial remission, full remission, new onset, no diagnosis) were compared with regard to impairment and number of symptoms. Participants were referred preschool children with externalizing behavioral problems (N = 193; 83 % male) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 58; 71 % male). Follow-up assessments allowed to distinguish children belonging to the chronic group of ODD, CD or ADHD from those belonging to one of the remission groups. In addition, there was a substantial number of children with a new onset diagnosis. In conclusion, as a complement to studies showing stability of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis into school age, present findings point to changes of diagnosis in the preschool and early school period. Diagnostic reassessments therefore are needed in this age group.

Keywords

Preschoolers ODD CD ADHD Assessment Structured interview 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the parents and children who participated in this study.

Conflict of Interest

Ms. Bunte, Schoemaker, and Dr. Hessen, van der Heijden, and Matthys report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms and profiles. Burlington: Research Center for Children, Youth & Families VT: University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (IV-TR Edition). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Bunte, T. L., Laschen, S., Schoemaker, K., Hessen, D. J., van der Heijden, P. G. M., & Matthys, W. (2013a). Clinical usefulness of observational assessment in the diagnosis of DBD and ADHD in preschoolers. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2013.7735.Google Scholar
  5. Bunte, T. L., Schoemaker, K., Hessen, D. J., van der Heijden, P. G. M., & Matthys, W. (2013b). Clinical usefulness of the kiddie-disruptive behavior disorder schedule in the diagnosis of DBD and ADHD in preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 681–690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Comer, J. S., Chow, C., Chan, P. T., Cooper-Vince, C., & Wilson, L. A. (2013). Psychosocial treatment efficacy for disruptive behavior problems in very young children: a meta- analytic examination. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 26–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (2005). Peabody picture vocabulary test (III-NL) [Dutch version by L. Schlichting]. Amsterdam: Harcourt Assessment.Google Scholar
  8. Egger, H. L., & Angold, A. (2006). Common emotional and behavioral disorders in preschool children: presentation, nosology, and epidemiology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 313–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Egger, H. L., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., Potts, E., Walter, B. K., & Angold, A. (2006). Test-retest reliability of the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 538–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Galéra, C., Côté, S. M., Bouvard, M. P., Pingault, J. B., Melchior, M., Michel, G., et al. (2011). Early risk factors for hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention trajectories from age 17 months to 8 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68, 1267–1275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hardy, K. K., Kollins, S. H., Murray, D. W., Riddle, M. A., Greenhill, L., Cunningham, C., et al. (2007). Factor structure of parent- and teacher-rated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in the Preschoolers with Attention -Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS). Journal of Child and Adolescence Psychopharmacology, 17, 621–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Howell, E. M., & Teich, J. (2008). Variations in medicaid mental health service use and cost for children. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 35(3), 220–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Keenan, K., Wakschlag, L. S., & Danis, B. (2001). Kiddie-disruptive behavior disorder schedule (version 1.1).Google Scholar
  14. Keenan, K., Wakschlag, L. S., Danis, B., Hill, C., Humphries, M., Duax, J., et al. (2007). Further evidence of the reliability and validity of DSM-IV ODD and CD in preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(4), 457–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Keenan, K., Boeldt, D., Chen, D., Coyne, C., Donald, R., Duax, J., et al. (2011). Predictive validity of DSM-IV oppositional defiant and conduct disorders in clinically referred preschoolers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 47–55.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Lahey, B., Pelham, W. E., Loney, D., Kipp, H., Ehrhardt, A., Lee, S., et al. (2004). Three-year predictive validity of DSM-IV attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children diagnosed at 4–6 years of age. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(11), 2014–2020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Loney, J., Kipp, H., Lee, S. S., & Wilcutt, E. (2005). Instability of the DSM-IV subtypes of ADHD from preschool through elementary school. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 896–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Murray, D. W., Kollins, S. H., Hardy, K. K., Abikoff, H. B., Swanson, J. M., Cunningham, C., et al. (2007). Parent versus teacher ratings of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in the Preschoolers with Attention -Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS). Journal of Child and Adolescence Psychopharmacology, 17, 605–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Orvaschel, H., & Puig-Antich, J. (1995). Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children-epidemiologic 5th version. Ft. Lauderdale: Nova University.Google Scholar
  20. Raven, J. C., Court, J. H., & Raven, J. (1998). Raven coloured progressive matrices. Oxford: Oxford Psychologist Press.Google Scholar
  21. Riddle, M. A., Yershova, K., Lazzaretto, D., Paykina, N., Yenokyan, G., Greenhill, L., et al. (2013). The preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder treatment study (PATS) 6-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 264–278.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Ringel, J. S., & Sturm, R. (2001). National estimates of mental health utilization and expenditures for children in 1998. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, 28, 319–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schaffer, D., Goud, M. S., Brasic, J., Ambrosini, P., Fisher, P., Bird, H., et al. (1983). A children’s global assessment scale (CGAS). Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 1228–1231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schlichting, L. (2005). Peabody picture vocabulary test III-NL. Amsterdam: Hartcourt Assessment.Google Scholar
  25. Schoemaker, K., Bunte, T., Wiebe, S. A., Espy, K. A., Dekovic, M., & Matthys, W. (2012). Executive function deficits in preschool children with ADHD and DBD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 111–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shaw, D. S., Lacourse, E., & Nagin, D. S. (2005). Developmental trajectories of conduct problems and hyperactivity from ages 2 to 10. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 931–942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wakschlag, L. S., Leventhal, B. L., Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Danis, B., Keenan, K., Hill, C., et al. (2005). Defining the “disruptive” in preschool behavior: what diagnostic observation can teach us. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8(3), 183–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wakschlag, L. S., Hill, C., Carter, A. S., Danis, B., Egger, H. L., Keenan, K., et al. (2008a). Observational assessment of preschool disruptive behavior, part I: reliability of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(6), 622–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wakschlag, L. S., Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Hill, C., Danis, B., Leventhal, B. D., Keenan, K., et al. (2008b). Observational assessment of preschool disruptive behavior, part II: validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB -DOS). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(6), 632–640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Webster-Stratton, C., & Reid, M. J. (2010). The incredible years parents, teachers and children training series: A multifaceted treatment approach for young children with conduct problems. In J. Weisz & A. Kazdin (Eds.), Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents (2nd ed., pp. 194–210). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  31. Wilens, T. E., Biederman, J., Brown, S., Monuteaux, M., Prince, J., & Spencer, T. J. (2002). Patterns of psychopathology and dysfunction in clinically referred preschoolers. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 23, S31–S36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Willoughby, M. T., Pek, J., & Greenberg, M. T. (2012). Parent-reported attention deficit/hyperactivity symptomatology in preschool-aged children: factor structure, developmental change and early risk factors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 1301–1312.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tessa L. Bunte
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Kim Schoemaker
    • 1
    • 2
  • David J. Hessen
    • 3
  • Peter G. M. van der Heijden
    • 3
  • Walter Matthys
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Child and Adolescent StudiesUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Methodology and Statistics, Faculty of Social SciencesUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations