Bidirectional Associations Between Parenting Behavior and Child Callous-Unemotional Traits: Does Parental Depression Moderate this Link?
- 848 Downloads
The current study longitudinally examined bidirectional associations between callous-unemotional (CU) traits and parenting dimensions. This study extended the literature by examining whether parental depression moderated these relations in a pre-adolescent sample. Proposed relations were examined using a longitudinal sample of 120 aggressive children (59.6 % male) who were in the 4th grade (M = 10.56 years, SD = 0.56) at baseline and were followed annually over 4 years. A series of generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to examine proposed relations. At the first order level, corporal punishment (p < . 001) and poor supervision/monitoring predicted increases in CU traits (p = 0.03) however, the inverse relations were not found. Importantly, parental depression moderated the link between corporal punishment and CU traits. Specifically, at high levels of depression, corporal punishment was predictive of increases in CU traits, but was unrelated to CU traits at low levels of depression. These findings aid in our understanding of the link between corporal punishment and CU traits by highlighting conditions under which certain parenting behaviors have an impact on CU traits, which in turn, may have important intervention implications. Further clinical implications, limitations and future directions are discussed.
KeywordsChild Callous-unemotional traits Parenting behavior Bidirectionality Parental depression
The authors would like to acknowledge the following sources of funding that contributed to data collection: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (R49nCCR418569), National Institute of Drug Abuse (DA08453; DA16135) and the WT Grant Foundation.
- Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
- Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Barber, B. K. (2002). Intrusive parenting: How psychological control affects children and adolescents. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah: Laurence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers.Google Scholar
- Frick, P. J., & Hare, R. D. (2001). The antisocial processes screening device. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
- Frick, P. J., Ray, J. V., Thornton, L. C., & Kahn, R. E. (2014). Can callous-unemotional traits enhance the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of serious conduct problems in children and adolescents? A comprehensive review. Psychological Bulletin. doi: 10.1037/a0033076. Advance online publication.Google Scholar
- Hoffman, M. L. (1983). Affective and cognitive processes in moral internalization. In E. T. Higgins, D. Ruble, & W. Hartup (Eds.), Social cognition and social development: A socio-cultural perspective (pp. 236–274). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Horton, N. J., & Lipsitz, S. R. (1999). Review of software to fit generalized estimating equation regression models. The American Statistician, 53, 160–169.Google Scholar
- Kagen, J. (1984). The nature of the child. New York: Basic.Google Scholar
- Lochman, J. E., Wells, K. C., & Murray, M. (2007). The Coping Power Program: Preventative intervention at the middle school transition. In P. Tolan, J. Szapocznik, & S. Sambrano (Eds.), Preventing youth substance abuse: Science-based programs for children and adolescents (pp. 185–210). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lochman, J. E., Baden, R. E., Boxmeyer, C. L., Powell, N. P., Qu. L., Salekin, K. L., et al. (2014). Does a booster intervention augment the preventive effects of an abbreviated version of the Coping Power Program for aggressive children? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9727-y.
- Loney, B. R., & Lima, E. N. (2003). Classification and assessment. In C. A. Essau (Ed.), Conduct and oppositional defiant disorders: Epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment (pp. 3–32). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associated.Google Scholar
- Pardini, D. A., & Byrd, L. (2013). Developmental conceptualizations of psychopathic features. In K. Kiehl & W. Sinnott-Armstrong (Eds.), Handbook on psychopathy and law (pp. 61–77). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene: Castalia.Google Scholar
- Pettit, G. S., & Mize, J. (1993). Substance and style: Understanding the ways in which parents teach children about social relationships. In S. Duck (Ed.), Learning about relationships (pp. 118–151). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
- Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (1992). Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). Circle Pines: American Guidance Services.Google Scholar
- Twisk, J. W. R. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis for epidemiology: A practical guide. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar