Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 41, Issue 5, pp 759–773

Prevalence and Function of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) in a Community Sample of Adolescents, Using Suggested DSM-5 Criteria for a Potential NSSI Disorder

  • Maria Zetterqvist
  • Lars-Gunnar Lundh
  • Örjan Dahlström
  • Carl Göran Svedin
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10802-013-9712-5

Cite this article as:
Zetterqvist, M., Lundh, LG., Dahlström, Ö. et al. J Abnorm Child Psychol (2013) 41: 759. doi:10.1007/s10802-013-9712-5

Abstract

Previous prevalence rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents have varied considerably. In the present cross-sectional study, prevalence rates, characteristics and functions of NSSI were assessed in a large randomized community sample consisting of 3,060 (50.5 % female) Swedish adolescents aged 15–17 years. The suggested criteria for NSSI disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, (DSM-5) were used to assess prevalence rates with the aim of arriving at a more precise estimate. Out of the whole sample, 1,088 (35.6 %) adolescents (56.2 % female) reported at least one episode of NSSI during the last year, of which 205 (6.7 %) met suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder diagnosis. The NSSI disorder diagnosis was significantly more common in girls (11.1 % vs. 2.3 %, χ2 (1, N = 3046) = 94.08, p < 0.001, cOR = 5.43, 95 % CI [3.73, 7.90]). The NSSI disorder group consisted of significantly more smokers and drug users compared to adolescents with NSSI that did not meet DSM-5 criteria for NSSI disorder, and also differed concerning demographic variables. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on reported functions of NSSI, with the aim of validating Nock and Prinstein’s (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72:885–890, 2004, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114:140–146, 2005) four-factor model on a Swedish community sample, resulting in a close to acceptable fit. A two-factor model (social and automatic reinforcement) resulted in a slightly better fit. The most frequently reported factors were positive and negative automatic reinforcement. A majority of functions were significantly more often reported by girls than boys. The implications of the suggested DSM-5 criteria and reported functions are discussed.

Keywords

Non-suicidal self-injury disorder DSM-5 Prevalence Function Adolescents 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Zetterqvist
    • 1
    • 4
  • Lars-Gunnar Lundh
    • 2
  • Örjan Dahlström
    • 3
  • Carl Göran Svedin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine; Child and Adolescent PsychiatryLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyLund UniversityLundSweden
  3. 3.Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning; The Swedish Institute for Disability ResearchLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden
  4. 4.Child- and Adolescent Psychiatric ClinicUniversity HospitalLinköpingSweden

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