Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 41, Issue 5, pp 723–734 | Cite as

Influences of Biological and Adoptive Mothers’ Depression and Antisocial Behavior on Adoptees’ Early Behavior Trajectories

  • David C. R. Kerr
  • Leslie D. Leve
  • Gordon T. Harold
  • Misaki N. Natsuaki
  • Jenae M. Neiderhiser
  • Daniel S. Shaw
  • David Reiss
Article

Abstract

Research clearly demonstrates that parents pass risk for depression and antisocial behavior on to their children. However, most research confounds genetic and environmental mechanisms by studying genetically related individuals. Furthermore, most studies focus on either depression or antisocial behavior in parents or children, despite evidence of co-occurrence and shared etiology, and few consider the early origins of these problems in childhood. We estimated the influence of biological and adoptive mothers’ depression and antisocial behavior on growth in child externalizing and internalizing behaviors across early childhood using data from a prospective adoption study. Participants were 346 matched triads of physically healthy children (196 boys; 150 girls), biological mothers (BM), and adoptive mothers (AM). Latent growth curve models were estimated using AM reports of child internalizing and externalizing behaviors at ages 18, 27, and 54 months. Predictors of intercept (18 months) but not slope were identified. BM lifetime histories of major depressive disorder predicted child externalizing behaviors and BM antisocial behavior predicted child internalizing behavior. AM depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior were associated with both child outcomes. AM paths, but not BM paths were partially replicated using adopted fathers’ reports of child outcomes. BM obstetric complications, prenatal depressive symptoms, and postnatal adoptive family contact with BM did not account for BM paths. This adoption study distinguished risks conferred by biological mothers’ depression and antisocial behavior to children’s behaviors from those associated with adoptive mothers’ related symptoms. Future studies should examine gene-environment interplay to explain the emergence of serious problem trajectories in later childhood.

Keywords

Depression Externalizing Internalizing Early childhood Genetic risk Adoption 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by grant R01 HD042608 from NICHD, NIDA, and OBSSR, NIH, U.S. PHS (PIs: Reiss and Leve), by grant R01 DA020585 from NIDA, NIMH, and OBSSR, NIH, U.S. PHS (PI: Neiderhiser), by grant R01 MH092118 from NIMH, NIH, U.S. PHS (PIs: Neiderhiser and Leve). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development or the National Institutes of Health. We are very grateful to the adoption agencies and families who participated in the study. We thank Xiaojia Ge, John Reid, Rand Conger, Laura Scaramella, and Jody Ganiban for their scientific contributions to the larger study and Michelle Baumann for her editorial assistance.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms & profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (1993). Depressive comorbidity in children and adolescents: empirical, theoretical, and methodological issues. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1779–1791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arseneault, L., Tremblay, R. E., Boulerice, B., & Saucier, J. F. (2002). Obstetrical complications and violent delinquency: testing two developmental pathways. Child Development, 73, 496–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beardslee, W. R., Versage, E. M., & Gladstone, T. R. G. (1998). Children of affectively ill parents: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1134–1141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beck, A., & Shaw, D. S. (2004). The influence of perinatal complications and environmental adversity on boys’ antisocial behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck, A., & Steer, R. (1993). Beck depression inventory manual. The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Garbin, M. G. J. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck depression inventory twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 77–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blouin, A. G., Perez, E. L., & Blouin, J. H. (1988). Computerized administration of the diagnostic interview schedule. Psychiatry Research, 23, 335–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brennan, P. A., Pargas, R., Walker, E. F., Green, P., Newport, D. J., & Stowe, Z. (2008). Maternal depression and infant cortisol: influences of timing, comorbidity and treatment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 1099–1107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Conger, R. D., Belsky, J., & Capaldi, D. M. (2009). The intergenerational transmission of parenting: closing comments for the special section. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1276–1283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cottler, L. B., Compton, W. M., Ridenour, T. A., Abdallah, A. B., & Gallagher, T. (1998). Reliability of self-reported antisocial personality disorder symptoms among substance abusers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 49, 189–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Elkins, I. J., Iacono, W. G., Doyle, A. E., & McGue, M. (1997). Characteristics associated with the persistence of antisocial behavior: results from recent longitudinal research. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 2, 101–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garber, J., Ciesla, J. A., McCauley, E., Diamond, G., & Schloredt, K. A. (2011). Remission of depression in parents: links to healthy functioning in their children. Child Development, 82, 226–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gilliom, M., & Shaw, D. S. (2004). Codevelopment of externalizing and internalizing problems in early childhood. Developmental Psychopathology, 16, 313–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gjone, H., & Stevenson, J. (1997). The association between internalizing and externalizing behavior in childhood and early adolescence: genetic or environmental common influences? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 277–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Greenberg, P. E., Kessler, R. C., Birnbaum, H. G., Leong, S. A., Lowe, S. W., Berglund, P. A., & Corey-Liske, P. K. (2003). The economic burden of depression in the United States: how did it change between 1990 and 2000? The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64, 1465–1475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Harold, G. T., Rice, F., Hay, D. F., Boivin, J., van den Bree, M., & Thapar, A. (2011). Familial transmission of depression and antisocial behavior symptoms: disentangling the contribution of inherited and environmental factors and testing the mediating role of parenting. Psychological Medicine, 41, 1175–1178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hicks, B. M., Krueger, R. F., Iacono, W. G., McGue, M., & Patrick, C. J. (2004). Family transmission and heritability of externalizing disorders: a twin-family study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 922–928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Juffer, F. (2006). Children’s awareness of adoption and their problem behavior in families with 7-year-old internationally adopted children. Adoption Quarterly, 9, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Juffer, F., & van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2005). Behavior problems and mental health referrals of international adoptees: a meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 2501–2515.Google Scholar
  22. Kendler, K. S., Prescott, C. A., Myers, J., & Neale, M. C. (2003). The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 929–937.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kessler, R. C., & Üstün, T. B. (2004). The World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The International Journal of Methods in Psychiatry Research, 13, 93–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kessler, R.C., Ormel, J., Petukhova, M., McLaughlin, K.A., Green, J.G., Russo, L.J., …Sagar, R., & Ustün, T.B. (2011). Development of lifetime comorbidity in the World Health Organization world mental health surveys. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68, 90–100.Google Scholar
  25. Kim, H. K., Capaldi, D. M., Pears, K. C., Kerr, D. C. R., & Owen, L. D. (2009). Intergenerational transmission of internalising and externalising behaviours across three generations: gender-specific. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 19, 125–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kim-Cohen, J., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Pawlby, S. J., & Caspi, A. (2005). Maternal depression and children’s antisocial behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 173–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Koop, L. M., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2007). Patterns of psychopathology in the families of children with conduct problems, depression, and both psychiatric conditions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 301–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krueger, R. F., & Markon, K. E. (2006). Reinterpreting comorbidity: a model-based approach to understanding and classifying psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 2, 111–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Leve, L.D., Neiderhiser, J.M., Shaw, D.S., Ganiban, J., Natsuaki, M.N., & Reiss, D. (2013). The Early Growth and Development Study: A prospective adoption study of child behavior from birth through middle childhood. Twin Research and Human Genetics. Google Scholar
  30. Levenson, M. R., Kiehl, K. A., & Fitzpatrick, C. M. (1995). Assessing psychopathic attributes in a non-institutionalized population. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 151–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lewis, G., Rice, F., Harold, G. T., Collishaw, S., & Thapar, A. (2011). Investigating environmental links between parent depression and child depressive/anxiety symptoms using an assisted conception design. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 451–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mathiesen, K. S., & Sanson, A. (2000). Dimensions of early childhood behavior problems: stability and predictors of change from 18 to 39 months. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 15–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McNeil, T., & Sjöström, K. (1995). McNeil-Sjöström scale for obstetric complications. Sweden: Lund University.Google Scholar
  34. Meyer, J.M., Rutter, M., Silberg, J.L., Maes, H.H., Simonoff, E., Shillady, L.L., … Eaves, L.J. (2000). Familial aggregation for conduct disorder symptomatology: The role of genes, marital discord and family adaptability. Psychological Medicine, 30, 759–774.Google Scholar
  35. Müller, J. M., Achtergarde, S., & Furniss, T. (2011). The influence of maternal psychopathology on ratings of child psychiatric symptoms: an SEM analysis on cross-informant agreement. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 20, 241–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Murray, L., Arteche, A., Fearon, P., Halligan, S., Goodyer, I., & Cooper, P. (2011). Maternal postnatal depression and the development of depression in offspring up to 16 years of age. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 460–470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Muthén, L., & Muthén, B. (1998–2010). Mplus user’s guide. Los Angeles, CA: Author.Google Scholar
  38. O’Connor, T. G., McGuire, S., Reiss, D., Hetherington, E. M., & Plomin, R. (1998). Co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior in adolescence: a common genetic liability. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 27–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Olino, T. M., Pettit, J. W., Klein, D. N., Allen, N. B., Seeley, J. R., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (2008). Influence of parental and grandparental major depressive disorder on behavior problems in early childhood. A three-generational study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 53–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pemberton, C. K., Neiderhiser, J. M., Leve, L. D., Natsuaki, M. N., Shaw, D. S., Reiss, D., & Ge, X. (2010). Influence of parental depressive symptoms on adopted toddler behaviors: an emerging developmental cascade of genetic and environmental effects. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 803–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Scaramella, L. V., & Leve, L. D. (2004). Clarifying parent–child reciprocities during early childhood: the early childhood coercion model. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 7, 89–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shaw, D. S., Gilliom, M., & Giovannelli, J. (2000). Aggressive behavior disorders. In C. H. Zeanah (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (2nd ed., pp. 397–411). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  43. Silberg, J. L., Maes, H., & Eaves, L. J. (2010). Genetic and environmental influences on the transmission of risk from parental depression to children’s depression and conduct problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 734–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sullivan, P. F., Neale, M. C., & Kendler, K. S. (2000). Genetic epidemiology of major depression: review and meta-analysis. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1552–1562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tully, E. C., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2008). An adoption study of parental depression as an environmental liability for adolescent depression and childhood disruptive disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 1148–1154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. van den Oord, E. J. C. G., Boomsma, D. I., & Verhulst, F. C. (2000). A study of genetic and environmental effects on the co-occurrence of problem behaviors in three-year-old-twins. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 360–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. van der Valk, J. C., van den Oord, E. J. C. G., Verhulst, F. C., & Boomsma, D. I. (2003). Genetic and environmental contributions to stability and change in children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1212–1220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Welsh, B. C., Loeber, R., Stevens, B. R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Cohen, M. A., & Farrington, D. P. (2008). The costs of juvenile crime in urban areas: a longitudinal perspective. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 6, 3–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • David C. R. Kerr
    • 1
    • 2
  • Leslie D. Leve
    • 2
  • Gordon T. Harold
    • 3
  • Misaki N. Natsuaki
    • 4
  • Jenae M. Neiderhiser
    • 5
  • Daniel S. Shaw
    • 6
  • David Reiss
    • 7
  1. 1.School of Psychological Science, Oregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Oregon Social Learning CenterEugeneUSA
  3. 3.University of LeicesterLeicesterUK
  4. 4.University of California, RiversideRiversideUSA
  5. 5.The Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  6. 6.University of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  7. 7.Yale Child Study Center, Yale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations