Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 40, Issue 4, pp 595–606 | Cite as

Emotion Regulation Mediates the Relationship between ADHD and Depressive Symptoms in Youth

  • Karen E. Seymour
  • Andrea Chronis-Tuscano
  • Thorhildur Halldorsdottir
  • Brandi Stupica
  • Kristian Owens
  • Talia Sacks


A significant literature suggests that youth diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for later depression relative to youth without ADHD. Youth with co-occurring ADHD and depression experience more serious impairments and worse developmental outcomes than those with either disorder alone, including increased rates of suicidal ideation and suicide completion. Despite these very serious outcomes, few studies have examined the mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and depression in youth. The present study examined emotion regulation (ER) as a mediator of the relationship between ADHD and depressive symptoms in 69 youth between the ages of 10 and 14, with (n = 37) and without (n = 32) ADHD. Parent and youth ratings of depressive symptoms and ER were collected. Youth with ADHD reported significantly more depressive symptoms and poorer ER ability relative to youth without ADHD. ER fully mediated the relationship between ADHD and depressive symptoms. Limitations and clinical implications are discussed.


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Emotion regulation Depression 


  1. Ambrosini, P. J. (2000). Historical development and present status of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children (K-SADS). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 49–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental (4th edition, text-revised). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Angold, A., Costello, E., Erkanli, A., & Worthman, C. (1999). Pubertal changes in hormone levels and depression in girls. Psychological Medicine, 29(5), 1043–1053.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 65–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barkley, R. A., Fisher, M., Edelbrook, C. S., & Smallish, L. (1991). The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria: III. Mother-child interactions, family conflicts and maternal psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 233–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baron, R., & Kenny, D. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Biederman, J., Ball, S., Monuteaux, M., Mick, E., Spencer, T., McCreary, M., et al. (2008). New insights into the comorbidity between ADHD and major depression in adolescent and young adult females. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(4), 426–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blackman, G., Ostrander, R., & Herman, K. (2005). Children with ADHD and depression: a multisource, multimethod assessment of clinical, social, and academic functioning. Journal of Attention Disorders, 8(4), 195–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bloch, L., Moran, E. K., & Kring, A. M. (2009). On the need for conceptual and definitional clarity in emotion regulation research. In A. M. Kring & D. S. Sloan (Eds.), Emotion regulation and psychopathology (pp. 88–104). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  10. Bussing, R., Mason, D. M., Bell, L., Porter, P., & Garvan, C. (2010). Adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a diverse community sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(6), 595–605.Google Scholar
  11. Chronis, A. M., Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Kipp, H., Baumann, B., & Lee, S. S. (2003). Psychopathology and substance abuse in parents of young children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1425–1432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chronis-Tuscano, A., Molina, B. G., Pelham, W. E., Applegate, B., Dahlke, A., Overmyer, M., & Lahey, B. B. (2010). Very early predictors of adolescent depression and suicide attempts in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(10), 1044–1051.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Claude, D., & Firestone, P. (1995). The development of ADHD boys: a 12-year follow-up. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 27(2), 226–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Compas, B. E., Connor-Smith, J. K., & Jasper, S. S. (2004). Temperament, stress-reactivity, and coping: implications for depression in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 21–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Compas, B. E., Jaser, S. S., & Benson, M. (2009). Coping and emotion regulation: Implications for understanding depression during adolescence. In S. Nolen-Hoeksema & L. Hilt (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent depression. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  16. Costello, E., Foley, D., & Angold, A. (2006). 10-year research update review: the epidemiology of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders: II. Developmental epidemiology. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(1), 8–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davey, C. G., Yucel, M., & Allen, N. B. (2008). The emergence of depression in adolescence: development of the prefrontal cortex and the representation of reward. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 32, 1–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Daviss, W. (2008). A review of co-morbid depression in pediatric ADHD: etiologies, phenomenology, and treatment. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 18(6), 565–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Daviss, W. B., Birmaher, B., Melhem, N. A., Axelson, D. A., Michaels, S. M., & Brent, D. A. (2006). Criterion validity of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire for depressive episodes in clinic and non-clinic subjects. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(9), 927–934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Daviss, W., Diler, R., & Birmaher, B. (2009). Associations of lifetime depression with trauma exposure, other environmental adversities, and impairment in adolescents with ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(6), 857–871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Diler, R. A., Daviss, W. B., Lopez, A., Axelson, D., Iyengar, S., & Birmaher, B. (2007). Differentiating major depressive disorder in youths with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 102, 125–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DuPaul, G. J., Volpe, R. J., Jitendra, A. K., et al. (2004). Elementary school students with AD/HD: predictors of academic achievement. Journal of School Psychology, 42, 285–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Durbin, C., & Shafir, D. (2008). Emotion regulation and risk for depression. In J. R. Z. Abela & H. L. Hankin (Eds.), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents (pp. 149–176). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  24. Eisenberg, N., & Spinrad, T. L. (2004). Emotion-related regulation: sharpening the definition. Child Development, 75, 334–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Elia, J., Ambrosini, P., & Berrettini, W. (2008). ADHD characteristics: I. Concurrent co-morbidity patterns in children & adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 2(1), 15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Waschbusch, D., Gnagy, E. M., Lahey, B. B., Chronis, A. M., Onyango, A. N., Kipp, H., Lopez-Williams, A., & Burrows-MacLean, L. (2006). A practical impairment measure: psychometric properties of the impairment rating scale in three samples of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 369–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Feng, X., Keenan, K., Hipwell, A., Henneberger, A., Rischall, M., Butch, J., et al. (2009). Longitudinal associations between emotion regulation and depression in preadolescent girls: moderation by the caregiving environment. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), 798–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS—2nd edition. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  29. Fishman, P. A., Stang, P. E., & Hogue, S. L. (2007). Impact of comorbid attention deficit disorder on the direct medical costs of treating adults with depression in managed care. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68(2), 248–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gittelman, R., Mannuzza, S., Shenker, R., & Bonagura, N. (1985). Hyperactive boys almost grown up: I. Psychiatric status. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42(10), 937–947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gotlieb, I. H., & Hammen, C. L. (2008). Handbook of depression—2nd Edition. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  32. Gratz, K., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26(1), 41–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 3–24). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  34. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis—6th Edition. New Jersey: Pearson-Prentice Hill.Google Scholar
  35. Hankin, B., Fraley, R., Lahey, B., & Waldman, I. (2005). Is depression best viewed as a continuum or discrete category? A taxometric analysis of childhood and adolescent depression in a population-based sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(1), 96–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hankin, B. L., & Abramson, L. Y. (2001). Development of gender differences in depression: an elaborated cognitive vulnerability-transactional stress theory. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 773–796.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hankin, B. L., Gibb, B. E., Abela, J. R., & Flory, K. (2010). Selective attention to affective stimuli and clinical depression among youths: role of anxiety and specificity of emotion. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(3), 491–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: statistical mediation analyses in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76, 408–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hinshaw, S. E. (1994). Attention deficits and hyperactivity in children. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  40. Hoza, B., Gerdes, A., Mrug, S., Hinshaw, S., Bukowski, W., Gold, J., et al. (2005). Peer-assessed outcomes in the multimodal treatment study of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34(1), 74–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. James, A., Lai, F., & Dahl, C. (2004). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and suicide: a review of possible associations. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 110(6), 408–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jensen, P. S., Rubio-Stipec, M., Canino, G., Bird, H. R., Dulcan, M. K., Schwab-Stone, M. E., et al. (1999). Parent and child contributions to diagnosis of mental disorder: are both informants always necessary? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1569–1579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Johnston, C., & Mash, E. J. (2001). Families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: review and recommendations for future research. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4, 183–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Karustis, J. L., Power, T. J., Rescorla, L. A., Eiraldi, R. B., & Gallagher, P. R. (2000). Anxiety and depression in children with ADHD: unique associations with academic and social functioning. Journal of Attention Disorders, 4, 133–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Rao, U., & Ryan, N. (1997). Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 980–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kovacs, M. (1992). Children’s Depression Inventory manual. North Tonawanda: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  48. Kovacs, M., Sherrill, J., George, C., Pollock, M., Tumuluru, R., & Ho, V. (2006). Contextual emotion-regulation therapy for childhood depression: description and pilot testing of a new intervention. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(8), 892–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lahey, B. B., Chronis, A. M., Lee, S., Loney, J., Pelham, W. E., & Hartung, C. M. (2007). Are there sex differences in the predictive validity of DSM-IV ADHD among younger children? Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36(2), 113–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lee, S., Lahey, B., Owens, E., & Hinshaw, S. (2008). Few preschool boys and girls with ADHD are well-adjusted during adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(3), 373–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lewinsohn, P. M., Clarke, G. N., Seeley, J. R., & Rohde, P. (1994). Major depression in community adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 809–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Logan, D. E., & King, C. A. (2002). Parental identification of depression and mental health service use among depressed adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(3), 296–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Luebbe, A. M., Bell, D. J., Allwood, M. A., Swenson, L. P., & Early, M. C. (2010). Social information processing in children: specific relations to anxiety, depression and affect. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39(3), 386–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Maedgen, J., & Carlson, C. (2000). Social functioning and emotional regulation in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29(1), 30–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mannuzza, S., Klein, R., Bessler, A., Malloy, P., & LaPadula, M. (1998). Adult psychiatric status of hyperactive boys grown up. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(4), 493–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Martel, M. M. (2009). A new perspective on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: emotion dysregulation and trait models. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 50(9), 1042–1051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Martel, M. M., & Nigg, J. T. (2009). Child ADHD and personality/temperament traits of reactive an effortful control, resiliency and emotionality. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(11), 1437–1444.Google Scholar
  58. Martinussen, R., Hayden, J., Hogg-Johnson, S., & Tannock, R. (2005). A meta-analysis of working memory impairments in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(4), 377–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Maxwell, S. E., & Cole, D. A. (2007). Bias in cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal mediation. Psychological Methods, 12(1), 23–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McQuade, J. D., Hoza, B., Waschbusch, D. A., Murray-Close, D., & Owens, J. S. (2011). Changes in self-perceptions in children with ADHD: a longitudinal study of depressive symptoms and attributional style. Behavior Therapy, 42(2), 170–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Melnick, S. M., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2000). Emotion regulation and parenting in AD/HD and comparison boys: linkages with social behaviors and peer preference. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 73–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Monuteaux, M. C., Faraone, S. V., Gross, L., & Biederman, J. (2007). Predictors, clinical characteristics, and outcome of conduct disorder in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a longitudinal study. Psychological Medicine, 37(12), 1731–1741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Moretti, M. M., Fine, S., Haley, G., & Marriage, K. (1985). Childhood and adolescent depression: child—report versus parent report information. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(3), 298–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Musser, E. D., Backs, R. W., Schmitt, C. F., Ablow, J. C., Measelle, J. R., & Nigg, J. T. (2011). Emotion regulation via the autonomic nervous system in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(6), 841–852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Neumann, A., van Lier, P. C., Gratz, K. L., & Koot, H. M. (2010). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation difficulties in adolescents using the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Assessment, 17(1), 138–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nigg, J. T., & Casey, B. J. (2005). An integrative theory of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder based on the cognitive and affective neurosciences. Developmental Psychopathology, 17(3), 785–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nigg, J. T., Goldsmith, H. H., & Sachek, J. (2004). Temperament and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the development of a multiple pathway model. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 42–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Norvilitis, J., Casey, R., Brooklier, K., & Bonello, P. (2000). Emotion appraisal in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their parents. Journal of Attention Disorders, 4(1), 15–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ostrander, R., & Herman, K. (2006). Potential cognitive, parenting, and developmental mediators of the relationship between ADHD and depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(1), 89–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Paus, T., Keshavan, M., & Giedd, J. N. (2008). Why do many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence? Nature reviews Neuroscience, 9, 947–957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Pelc, K., Kornreich, C., & Foisy, D. (2006). Recognition of emotional facial expressions in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatric Neurology, 35(2), 93–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pelham, W. E., Gnagy, E. M., Greenslade, K. E., & Milich, R. (1992). Teacher ratings of DSM-III-R symptoms for the disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 210–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pelham, W. E., Fabiano, G. A., & Massetti, G. M. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34(3), 548–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Piacentini, J. C., Cohen, P., & Cohen, J. (1992). Combining discrepant diagnostic information from multiple sources: are complex algorithms better than simple ones? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20, 51–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879–891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). Behavior assessment system for children, second edition (BASC-2). Circle Pines: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  77. Rothbart, M. K., & Posner, M. I. (2006). Temperament, attention, and developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology. Vol. 2: Developmental neuroscience (pp. 465–501). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  78. Rubio-Stipec, M., Fitzmaurice, G., Murphy, J., & Walker, A. (2003). The use of multiple informants in identifying the risk factors of depression and disruptive disorders: are they interchangeable? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38(2), 51–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schmeichel, B., Volokhov, R., & Demaree, H. (2008). Working memory capacity and the self-regulation of emotional expression and experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(6), 1526–1540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Scime, M., & Norvilitis, J. (2006). Task performance and response to frustration in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 43(3), 377–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shields, A. M., & Cicchetti, D. (1997). Emotion regulation in school-age children: the development of a new criterion Q-sort scale. Developmental Psychology, 33, 906–916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shields, A., Ryan, R. M., & Cicchetti, D. (2001). Narrative representations of caregivers and emotion dysregulation as predictors of maltreated children’s rejection by peers. Developmental Psychology, 37(3), 321–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Singh, S., Ellis, C., Winton, A., Singh, N., Leung, J., & Oswald, D. (1998). Recognition of facial expressions of emotion by children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behavior Modification, 22(2), 128–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Smith, B. H., Pelham, W. E., Jr., Gnagy, E., Molina, B., & Evans, S. (2000). The reliability, validity, and unique contributions of self-report by adolescents being treated for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 489–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tortella-Feliu, M., Balle, M., & Sesé, A. (2010). Relationships between negative affectivity, emotion regulation, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in adolescents as examined through structural equation modeling. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(7), 686–693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Walcott, C., & Landau, S. (2004). The relation between disinhibition and emotion regulation in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(4), 772–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler intelligence scale for children—third edition: Manual. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  88. Weinberg, A., & Klonsky, E. (2009). Measurement of emotion dysregulation in adolescents. Psychological Assessment, 21(4), 616–621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Willcutt, E. G., Doyle, A. E., Nigg, J. T., Faraone, S. V., & Pennington, B. F. (2005). Validity of the executive function theory of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a meta-analytic review. Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1336–1346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Williams, L. M., Hermens, D. F., Palmer, D., Kohn, M., Clarke, S., Keage, H., et al. (2008). Misinterpreting emotional expressions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence for a neural marker and stimulant effects. Biological Psychiatry, 63(10), 917–926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen E. Seymour
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andrea Chronis-Tuscano
    • 1
  • Thorhildur Halldorsdottir
    • 1
  • Brandi Stupica
    • 1
  • Kristian Owens
    • 1
  • Talia Sacks
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  2. 2.University of Maryland, College ParkCollege ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations