Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 201–209

Temperament Alters Susceptibility to Negative Peer Influence in Early Adolescence

Article

Abstract

The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence. Participants included 704 adolescents recruited from the community. At baseline, parents provided information on adolescents’ temperament and youth reported on their own and their friends’ delinquent behavior. Self-reports of adolescents’ delinquent behavior were collected again 16 months later. Peer deviance was related to delinquent behavior over time more strongly for adolescents with low levels of task orientation, flexibility, and positive mood, compared to youth with high levels of task orientation, flexibility, and positive mood. Analyses of gender differences indicated that low flexibility increased susceptibility to negative peer influence only for males, but not females. General activity level and sleep rhythmicity did not moderate the effect of peer behavior on delinquency.

Keywords

Peer influence Temperament Externalizing behavior Early adolescence 

References

  1. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Bates, J. E., Bayles, K., Bennett, D. S., Ridge, B., & Brown, M. M. (1991). Origins of externalizing behavior problems at eight years of age. In D. J. Pepler & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 93–120). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  3. Berndt, T. J., & Keefe, K. (1995). Friends’ influence on adolescents’ adjustment to school. Child Development, 66, 1312–1329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beyers, J. M., & Loeber, R. (2003). Untangling developmental relations between depressed mood and delinquency in male adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 247–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bramlett, R. K., Scott, P., & Rowell, R. K. (2000). A comparison of temperament and social skills in predicting academic performance in first graders. Special Services in the Schools, 16, 147–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caspi, A., Henry, B., McGee, R. O., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1995). Temperamental origins of child and adolescent behavior problems: from age three to age fifteen. Child Development, 66, 55–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Caspi, A., Moffitt, T., Newman, D., & Silva, P. (1996). Behavioral observations at 3 years predict adult psychiatric disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 1033–1039.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Creemers, H. E., Dijkstra, J. K., Vollebergh, W. A., Ormel, J., Verhulst, F. C., & Huizink, A. C. (2010). Predicting life-time and regular cannabis use during adolescence; the roles of temperament and peer substance use: the TRAILS study. Addiction, 105, 699–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dawson, J. F., & Richter, A. W. (2006). Probing three-way interactions in moderated multiple regression: development and application of a slope difference test. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 917–926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dishion, T. J. (2000). Cross-setting consistency in early adolescent psychopathology: deviant friendships and problem behavior sequelae. Journal of Personality, 68, 1109–1126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dishion, T. J., Spracklen, K. M., Andrews, D. W., & Patterson, G. R. (1996). Deviancy training in male adolescent friendships. Behavior Therapy, 27, 373–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Bernzweig, J., Karbon, M., Poulin, R., & Hanish, L. (1993). The relations of emotionality and regulation to preschoolers’ social skills and sociometric status. Child Development, 64, 1418–1438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Murphy, M., Maszk, P., Smith, M., & Karbon, M. (1995). The role of emotionality and regulation in children’s social functioning: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 66, 1360–1384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., Fabes, R. A., Reiser, M., Cumberland, A., Shepard, S. A., et al. (2004). The relations of effortful control and impulsivity to children’s resiliency and adjustment. Child Development, 75, 25–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Enders, C. K. (2001). The performance of the Full Information Maximum Likelihood estimator in multiple regression models with missing data. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 61, 713–740. doi:10.1177/0013164401615001.Google Scholar
  17. Galambos, N. L., Barker, E. T., & Almeida, D. M. (2003). Parents do matter: Trajectories of change in externalizing and internalizing problems in early adolescence. Child Development, 74, 578–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gardner, T., Dishion, T., & Connell, A. (2008). Adolescent self-regulation as resilience: resistance to antisocial behavior within the deviant peer context. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 273–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Giancola, P. R., & Parker, A. M. (2001). A six-year prospective study of pathways toward drug use in adolescent boys with and without a family history of a substance use disorder. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62, 166–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Gifford-Smith, M., Dodge, K., Dishion, T. D., & McCord, J. (2005). Peer influence in children and adolescents: crossing the bridge from developmental to intervention science. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 255–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Guerin, D. W., Gottfried, A. W., Oliver, P. H., & Thomas, C. W. (1994). Temperament and school functioning during early adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 200–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Keenan, K., Loeber, R., Zhang, Q., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W. B. (1995). The influence of deviant peers on the development of boys’ disruptive and delinquent behavior: a temporal analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 715–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Keenan, K., & Shaw, D. (1997). Developmental and social influences on young girls’ early problem behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 95–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lerner, J. V., & Vicary, J. R. (1984). Difficult temperament and drug use. Journal of Drug Education, 14, 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Loeber, R., & Keenan, K. (1994). Interaction between conduct disorder and its comorbid conditions: effects of age and gender. Clinical Psychology Review, 14, 497–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Loeber, R., Russo, M. F., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Lahey, B. B. (1994). Internalizing problems and their relation to the development of disruptive behaviors in adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4, 615–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lovett, B. J., & Sheffield, R. A. (2007). Affective empathy deficits in aggressive children and adolescents: A critical review. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mobley, C. E., & Pullis, M. E. (1991). Temperament and behavioural adjustment in preschool children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 6, 577–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Molina, B. S., Chassin, L., & Curran, P. J. (1994). A comparison of mechanisms underlying substance use for early adolescent children of alcoholics and controls. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 55, 269–275.Google Scholar
  30. Monahan, K. C., Steinberg, L., & Cauffman, E. (2009). Affiliation with antisocial peers, susceptibility to peer influence, and antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1520–1530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mrug, S., Hoza, B., & Bukowski, W. M. (2004). Choosing or being chosen by aggressive-disruptive peers: do they contribute to children’s externalizing and internalizing problems? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 53–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mrug, S., & Windle, M. (2009). Moderators of negative peer influence on early adolescent externalizing behaviors: individual behavior, parenting, and school connectedness. Journal of Early Adolescence, 29, 518–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Patterson, G. R., & Capaldi, D. M. (1990). A mediational model for boys’ depressed mood. In J. E. Rolf, A. Masten, D. Cicchetti, K. Nuechterlein, & S. Weintraub (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology (pp. 141–163). Cambridge: University of Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Poulin, F., Dishion, T. J., & Haas, E. (1999). The peer influence paradox: friendship quality and deviancy training within male adolescent friendships. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45, 42–61.Google Scholar
  35. Preacher, K. J., Curran, P. J., & Bauer, D. J. (2006). Computational tools for probing interaction effects in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 31, 437–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Prior, M. (1992). Childhood temperament. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 249–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Prior, M., Smart, D., Sanson, A., & Oberklaid, F. (2001). Longitudinal predictors of behavioural adjustment in pre-adolescent children. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 297–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rothbart, M., & Bates, J. (2006). Temperament. In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, & L. M. Richard (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: vol. 3, Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 99–166). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  39. Rudasill, K. M., & Rimm-Kaufman, S. E. (2009). Teacher-child relationship quality: The roles of child temperament and teacher-child interactions. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24, 107–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sanson, A., Hemphill, S. A., & Smart, D. (2004). Connections between temperament and social development: a review. Social Development, 13, 142–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Selfhout, M. H. W., Branje, S. J. T., & Meeus, W. H. J. (2008). The development of delinquency and perceived friendship quality in adolescent best friendship dyads. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 471–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sigfusdottir, I. D., Farkas, G., & Silver, E. (2004). The role of depressed mood and anger in the relationship between family conflict and delinquent behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 509–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Snyder, J., McEachern, A., Schrepferman, L., Just, C., Jenkins, M., Roberts, S., et al. (2010). Contribution of peer deviancy training to the early development of conduct problems: Mechanisms and moderators. Behavior Therapy, 41, 317–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Steinberg, L., & Monahan, K. (2007). Age differences in resistance to peer influence. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1531–1543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tarter, R. E., Laird, S. B., Kabene, M., Bukstein, O., & Kaminer, Y. (1990). Drug abuse severity in adolescents is associated with magnitude of deviation in temperament traits. British Journal of Addiction, 85, 1501–1504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. van der Laan, A. M., Veenstra, R., Bogaerts, S., Verhulst, F. C., & Ormel, J. (2010). Serious, minor, and non-delinquents in early adolescence: the impact of cumulative risk and promotive factors. The TRAILS study. Journal Abnorm Child Psychology, 38, 339–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., & Tremblay, R. E. (2000). Influence of deviant friends on delinquency: searching for moderator variables. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 313–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., & Tremblay, R. E. (2002). Reactively and proactively aggressive children: antecedent and subsequent characteristics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 43, 495–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Williams, L. R., Fox, N. A., Lejuez, C. W., Reynolds, E. K., Henderson, H. A., Perez-Edgar, K. E., et al. (2010). Early temperament, propensity for risk-taking and adolescent substance-related problems: A prospective multi-method investigation. Addictive Behaviors, 35, 1148–1151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wills, T. A., & Cleary, S. D. (1999). Peer and adolescent substance use among 6th–9th graders: latent growth analyses of influence versus selection mechanisms. Health Psychology, 18, 453–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wills, T. A., & Dishion, T. J. (2004). Temperament and adolescent substance use: a transactional analysis of emerging self-control. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 69–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wills, T. A., Windle, M., & Cleary, S. D. (1998). Temperament and novelty seeking in adolescent substance use: convergence of dimensions of temperament with constructs from Cloninger’s theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 387–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wills, T. A., Sandy, J. M., & Yaeger, A. (2000). Temperament and adolescent substance use: an epigenetic approach to risk and protection. Journal of Personality, 68, 1127–1151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wills, T. A., Sandy, J. M., Yaeger, A., & Shinar, O. (2001). Family risk factors and adolescent substance use: moderation effects for temperament dimensions. Developmental Psychology, 37, 283–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Windle, M. (1991). The difficult temperament in adolescence: associations with substance use, family support, and problem behaviors. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47, 310–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Windle, M. (1992). Temperament and social support in adolescence: interrelations with depressive symptoms and delinquent behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21, 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Windle, M., & Lerner, R. M. (1986). Reassessing the dimensions of temperamental individuality across the life span: the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS-R). Journal of Adolescent Research, 1, 213–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wong, M. M., Brower, K. J., & Zucker, R. A. (2009). Childhood sleep problems, early onset of substance use and behavioral problems in adolescence. Sleep Medicine, 10, 787–796.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zahn-Waxler, C., & Radke-Yarrow, M. (1990). The origins of empathic concern. Motivation and Emotion, 14, 107–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health EducationEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations