Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 39, Issue 8, pp 1085–1098 | Cite as

Music and Video as Distractors for Boys with ADHD in the Classroom: Comparison with Controls, Individual Differences, and Medication Effects

  • William E. PelhamJr
  • Daniel A. Waschbusch
  • Betsy Hoza
  • Elizabeth M. Gnagy
  • Andrew R. Greiner
  • Susan E. Sams
  • Gary Vallano
  • Antara Majumdar
  • Randy L. Carter
Article

Abstract

This study examined the effects of music and video on the classroom behavior and performance of boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examined the effects of 0.3 mg/kg methylphenidate (MPH). In one study, 41 boys with ADHD and 26 controls worked in the presence of no distractor, music, or video. Video produced significant distraction, particularly for the boys with ADHD, and MPH improved the performance of boys with ADHD across distractor conditions.There were individual differences in response to the music such that some boys were adversely affected and others benefited relative to no-distractor.In a second study, music and MPH were assessed in an additional 86 boys with ADHD to examine further the music results. In the presence or absence of music, MPH improved performance relative to placebo. Similar individual differences were found as in Experiment 1.

Keywords

ADHD Distraction Stimulant medication Classroom Video distractor Music distractor Individual differences 

References

  1. Abikoff, H., Courtney, M. E., Szeibel, P. J., & Koplewicz, H. S. (1996). The effects of auditory stimulation on the arithmetic performance of children with ADHD and nondisabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29, 238–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M. (1991a). Manual for the child behavior checklist (ages 4–18) and 1991 profile. Burlington: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T. M. (1991b). Manual for the teacher’s report form & 1991 profile. Burlington: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  7. Armstrong, G. B. (1993). Cognitive interference from background television: Structural effects on verbal and spatial procession. Communication Studies, 44, 56–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Armstrong, G. B., & Chung, L. (2000). Background television and reading memory in context: Assessing TV interference and facilitative context effects on encoding versus retrieval processes. Communication Research, 27, 327–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Armstrong, G. B., & Greenberg, B. S. (1990). Background television as an inhibitor of cognitive processing. Human Communication Research, 16, 355–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Atkins, M. S., Pelham, W. E., & Licht, M. H. (1988). The development and validation of objective classroom measures for the assessment of conduct and attention deficit disorders. In R. J. Prinz (Ed.), Advances in behavioral assessment of children and families (Vol. 4, pp. 3–33). Greenwich: JAI.Google Scholar
  11. Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unified theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 65–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carlson, C. L., Pelham, W. E., Milich, R., & Dixon, J. (1992). Single and combined effects of methylphenidate and behavior therapy on the classroom performance of children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20, 213–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chronis, A. M., Fabiano, G. A., Gnagy, E. M., Onyango, A. N., Pelham, W. E., Lopez-Williams, A., et al. (2004). An evaluation of the summer treatment program for children with ADHD using a treatment withdrawal design. Behavior Therapy, 35, 561–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cool, V. A., Patton, J. E., Runde, R., & Keith, T. Z. (1994). Experimental effects of radio and television distractors on children’s performance on mathematics and reading assignments. The Journal of Experimental Education, 62, 181–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Douglas, V. I. (1983). Attentional and cognitive problems. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Developmental neuropsychiatry (pp. 280–329). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  16. Douglas, V. I. (1999). Cognitive control processes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders (pp. 105–138). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Douglas, V. I., & Parry, P. A. (1983). Effects of reward on delayed reaction time task performance of hyperactive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 11, 313–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Gnagy, E. M., Burrows-MacLean, L., Coles, E. K., Chacko, A., et al. (2007). The single and combined effects of multiple intensities of behavior modification and multiple intensities of methylphenidate for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a classroom setting. School Psychology Review, 36, 195–216.Google Scholar
  19. Felmlee, D., Eder, D., & Tsui, W. Y. (1985). Peer influence on classroom attention. Social Psychology Quarterly, 48, 215–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Furnham, A., & Bradley, A. (1997). Music while you work: The differential distraction of background music on the cognitive test performance of introverts and extraverts. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 11, 445–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goyette, C. H., Conners, C. K., & Ulrich, R. F. (1978). Normative data on revised Conners parent and teacher rating scales. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 221–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hoza, B., Waschbusch, D. A., Pelham, W. E., Molina, B., & Milich, R. (2000). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disordered and control boys’ responses to social success and failure. Child Development, 71, 432–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hoza, B., Pelham, W. E., Waschbusch, D. A., Kipp, H. L., & Owens, J. S. (2001). Academic task persistence of normally achieving ADHD and control boys: Performance, self-evaluations, and attributions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 271–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huang-Pollock, C. L., & Nigg, J. T. (2003). Searching for the attention deficit in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: The case of visuospatial orienting. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 801–830.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and effort. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  26. Lang, A. (1990). Involuntary attention and physiological arousal evoked by structural features and emotional content in TV commercials. Communication Research, 17, 275–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee, D. F., & Zentall, S. S. (2002). The effects of visual stimulation on the mathematics performance of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behavioral Disorders, 27, 272–288.Google Scholar
  28. Patton, J. E., Routh, D. K., & Stinard, T. A. (1986). Where do children study? Behavioral observations. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 24, 439–440.Google Scholar
  29. Pelham, W. E., Milich, R., Murphy, D. A., & Murphy, H. A. (1989). Normative data on the IOWA Conners teacher rating scale. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18, 259–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pelham, W. E., McBurnett, K., Harper, G., Milich, R., Murphy, D. A., Clinton, J., et al. (1990). Methylphenidate and baseball playing in ADHD children: Who’s on first? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 130–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pelham, W. E., Gnagy, E. M., Greenslade, K. E., & Milich, R. (1992). Teacher ratings of DSM-III-R symptoms for the disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 210–218. doi:10.1097/00004583-199203000-00006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pelham, W. E., Carlson, C., Sams, S. E., Vallano, G., Dixon, M. J., & Hoza, B. (1993). Seperate and combined effects of methylphenidate and behavior modification on boys with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in the classroom. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 506–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pelham, W. E., Hoza, B., Kipp, H. L., Gnagy, E. M., & Trane, S. E. (1997). Effects of methylphenidate and expectancy on ADHD children’s performance, self evaluations, persistence, and attributions on a cognitive task. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 5, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pelham, W. E., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis, A. M., Burros-Maclean, L., Fabiano, G. A., Onyango, A. N., et al. (1999). A comparison of morning-only and morning/late afternoon adderall to morning-only, twice-daily, and three times-daily methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics, 104, 1300–1311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pelham, W.E., Gnagy, E.M., Burrows-MacLean, L., Williams, A., Fabiano, G. A., Morrisey, S.M., . . . Morse, E. (2001). Once-a-day Concerta™ methylphenidate versus t.i.d. methylphenidate in laboratory and natural settings. Pediatrics (on-line article), 107, http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/107/106/e105.
  36. Pelham, W. E., Waschbusch, D. A., Hoza, B., Pillow, D. R., & Gnagy, E. M. (2001). Effects of methylphenidate and expectancy on ADHD boys’ performance, self-evaluations, persistence, and attributions on a social task. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 9, 425–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pelham, W. E., Hoza, B., Pillow, D. R., Gnagy, E. M., Kipp, H. L., Greiner, A. R., et al. (2002). Effects of methylphenidate and expectancy on children with ADHD: Behavior, academic performance, and attributions in a Summer Treatment Program and regular classroom setting. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 320–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pool, M. M., van der Voort, T. H. A., Beentjes, J. W. J., & Koolstra, C. M. (2000). Background television as an inhibitor of performance on easy and difficult homework assignments. Communication Research, 27, 293–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pool, M. M., Koolstra, C. M., & van der Voort, T. H. A. (2003). The impact of background radio and television on high school students’ homework performance. Journal of Communication, 53, 74–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Radosh, A., & Gittleman, R. (1981). The effect of appealing distractors on the performance of hyperactive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 9, 179–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rosenthal, R. H., & Allen, T. W. (1980). Intratask distractibility in hyperkinetic and nonhyperkinetic children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 8, 175–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sergeant, J. A., Oosterlaan, J., & van der Meere, J. (1999). Information processing and energetic factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders (pp. 75–104). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sikstrom, S., & Soderland, G. B. W. (2007). Stimulus-dependent dopamine release in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Psychological Review, 114, 1047–1075. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.114.4.1047.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Soderland, G. B. W., Sikstrom, S., & Smart, A. (2007). Listen to the noise: Noise is beneficial for cognitive performance in ADHD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 840–847. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01749.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Soderland, G. B. W., Sikstrom, S., Loftesnes, J. M., & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. (2010). The effects of background white noise on memory performance in inattentive school children. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 6. doi:10.1186/1744-9081-6-55.
  46. Swanson, J. M., McBurnett, K., Christian, D. L., & Wigal, T. (1995). Stimulant medications and the treatment of children with ADHD. In T. H. Ollendick & R. J. Prinz (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 17, pp. 265–322). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  47. Swanson, J. M., Wigal, S., Greenhill, L. L., Browne, R., Waslik, B., Lerner, M., et al. (1998). Analog classroom assessment of Adderall (r) in children with ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 519–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. van der Meere, J. (2005). State regulation and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In D. Gozal & D. L. Molfese (Eds.), Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: From genes to patients (pp. 413–433). Totowa: Humana.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. van der Meere, J., Shalev, R. S., Borger, N., & Wiersema, J. R. (2009). Methylphenidate, interstimulus interval, and reaction time performance of children wtih Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorde: A pilot study. Child Neuropsychology, 15, 554–566. doi:10.1080/09297040902758803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. van der Meere, J., Borger, N., & Wiersema, J. R. (2010). ADHD: State regulation and motivation. Current Medical Literature - Psychiatry, 12, 14–20.Google Scholar
  51. van Mourik, R., Oosterlan, J., Heslenfeld, D. J., Konig, C. E., & Sergeant, J. A. (2007). When distraction is not distracting: A behavioral and ERP study on distraction in ADHD. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118, 1855–1865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Waschbusch, D. A., & Willoughby, M. T. (2008). Parent and teacher ratings on the IOWA Conners Rating Scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 30, 180–192. doi:10.1007/s10862-007-9064-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Waschbusch, D. A., Carrey, N. J., Willoughby, M. T., King, S., & Andrade, B. F. (2007). Effects of methylphenidate and behavior modification on the social and academic behavior of children with disruptive behavior disorders: The moderating role of callous/unemotional traits. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 629–644. doi:10.1080/15374410701662766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wechsler, D. (1974). Wechsler intelligence scale for children - Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  55. Whalen, C. K., Henker, B., Collins, B. E., Fink, D., & Dotemoto, S. (1979). A social ecology of hyperactive boys: Medication effects in systematically structured classroom environments. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 65–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Woodcock, R. W. (1989). Woodcock-Johnson psycho-educational battery—Revised. Allen: DLM Teaching Resources.Google Scholar
  57. Zentall, S. S. (1977). Environmental stimulation model. Exceptional Children, 43, 502–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Zentall, S. S. (1979). Effects of environmental stimulation on behavior as a function of type of behavior disorder. Behavioral Disorders, 5, 19–29.Google Scholar
  59. Zentall, S. S., & Shaw, J. H. (1980). Effects of classroom noise on performance and activity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 830–840.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zentall, S. S., & Zentall, T. R. (1983). Optimal stimulation: A model of disordered activity and performance in normal and deviant children. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 446–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zentall, S. S., Zentall, T. R., & Barack, R. C. (1978). Distraction as a function of within-task stimulation for hyperactive and normal children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 11, 540–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • William E. PelhamJr
    • 1
  • Daniel A. Waschbusch
    • 1
  • Betsy Hoza
    • 2
  • Elizabeth M. Gnagy
    • 1
  • Andrew R. Greiner
    • 1
  • Susan E. Sams
    • 4
  • Gary Vallano
    • 5
  • Antara Majumdar
    • 3
    • 6
  • Randy L. Carter
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Center for Children and FamiliesFlorida International UniversityMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiostatisticsUniversity at Buffalo - SUNYBuffaloUSA
  4. 4.Allegheny Intermediate Unit, DART ProgramHomesteadUSA
  5. 5.Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicPittsburghUSA
  6. 6.Bristol-Myers Squibb CompanyBrooklynUSA

Personalised recommendations