The Relationship Between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo, Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Anxiety Disorders
- 968 Downloads
The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT), subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety disorders (AnxDs). One hundred and forty-one children (90 males, 51 females) aged 7–13 years were assigned to four groups, i.e., referred children with comorbid AnxDs and ADHD (n = 25), ADHD (n = 39), AnxDs (n = 41), and nonreferred controls (n = 36). Furthermore we explored the association between SCT and several neurocognitive measures (reaction time, verbal memory, and spatial memory). Diagnoses were established using Kiddie-SADS P/L. SCT was assessed using a 17-item mother-reported questionnaire. SCT correlated significantly with inattentiveness, regardless of the subtype of ADHD. Furthermore, we found significant differences in the levels of SCT among the four groups, with the highest SCT scores observed in the comorbid group. SCT correlated with variability in spatial memory; in contrast, there was no correlation between SCT and reaction time.
KeywordsSluggish cognitive tempo Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Anxiety disorders Spatial memory ADHD subtypes
The research was funded by the Norwegian Research Council.
Financial disclosures: Skirbekk, Hansen, Oerbeck, and Kristensen report no biomedical financial interest or potential conflict of interest.
- American Psychiatric Association (1980). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM III (Vol. 3rd). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV (Vol. 4th). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Barkley, R. A., & Murphy, K. R. (1998). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A clinical workbook. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Baron, I. S. (2004). Neuropsychological evaluation of the child. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Garner, A., Marceaux, J., Mrug, S., Patterson, C., & Hodgens, B. (2010). Dimensions and correlates of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sluggish cognitive tempo. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1–11.Google Scholar
- Hinshaw, S. P., Carte, E. T., Sami, N., Treuting, J. J., & Zupan, B. A. (2002). Preadolescent girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: II. Neuropsychological performance in relation to subtypes and individual classification. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(5), 1099–1111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Huang-Pollock, C. L., Nigg, J. T., & Carr, T. H. (2005). Deficient attention is hard to find: applying the perceptual load model of selective attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 46(11), 1211–1218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Johnson, K. A., Robertson, I. H., Barry, E., Mulligan, A., Daibhis, A., Daly, M., et al. (2008). Impaired conflict resolution and alerting in children with ADHD: evidence from the Attention Network Task (ANT). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(12), 1339–1347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., & Rao, U. (1997). Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(7), 980–988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lahey, B. B. (2001). Should the combined and predominantly inattentive types of ADHD be considered distinct and unrelated disorders? Not now, at least. Clinical Psychology, 8(4), 494–497.Google Scholar
- Lahey, B. B., Schaughency, E. A., Hynd, G. W., & Carlson, C. L. (1987). Attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity: comparison of behavioral characteristics of clinic-referred children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(5), 718–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Manassis, K., Tannock, R., Young, A., & Francis-John, S. (2007). Cognition in anxious children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a comparison with clinical and normal children. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 3, doi: 10.1186/1744-9081-1183-1184.
- Mayes, S. D., Calhoun, S. L., Chase, G. A., Mink, D. M., & Stagg, R. E. (2009). ADHD subtypes and co-occurring anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder: differences in Gordon Diagnostic System and Wechsler Working Memory and Processing Speed Index scores. Journal of Attention Disorders, 12(6), 540–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Milich, R., Balentine, A. C., & Lynam, D. R. (2001). ADHD combined type and ADHD predominantly inattentive type are distinct and unrelated disorders. Clinical Psychology, 8(4), 463–488.Google Scholar
- Pfiffner, L. J., Mikami, A. Y., Huang-Pollock, C., Easterlin, B., Zalecki, C., & McBurnett, K. (2007). A randomized, controlled trial of integrated home-school behavioral treatment for ADHD, predominantly inattentive type. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(8), 1041–1050.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sheslow, D., & Adams, W. (1990). Wide range assessment of memory and learning. Manual. Wilmington: Jastak.Google Scholar
- SPSS Inc (2006). The statistical package for social sciences (Version 15.0 for Windows). Chicago: SPSS Inc.Google Scholar
- Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler intelligence scale for children-third edition; WISC-III. Manual. Norwegian Manual Supplement 2003 (Pearson Assessment). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence; WASI. Manual. Norwegian Manual Supplement 2007 (Pearson Assessment). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar