Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 1–15

Delay and Inhibition as Early Predictors of ADHD Symptoms in Third Grade

Article

Abstract

We used data from a large, longitudinal study of children in the community, the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, to examine how well earlier measures of delay capacity, inhibitory control, planning, and attention predicted symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed in third grade. Children with elevated symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity (n = 57) and with inattentive symptoms only (n = 80) were identified via mother and teacher reports using the “or” rule, as were children without significant symptoms (n = 790). Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that poorer performance on earlier measures of resistance to temptation, delay of gratification, response inhibition, attention, and planning obtained from 36 months to 1st grade predicted membership in the two symptom groups relative to the comparison group in 3rd grade, albeit with somewhat different patterns of predictors. Controls for 36 month school readiness and externalizing symptoms indicated that these results were generally robust and not an artifact of initial cognitive or behavioral differences. Implications for developmental models of ADHD are discussed.

Keywords

Early predictors of ADHD symptoms Inattention Hyperactivity–impulsivity Delay Inhibition Longitudinal study 

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991a). Manual for the child behavior checklist/4–18 and 1991Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M. (1991b). Manual for the teacher’s report form and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T. M. (1992). Manual for the child behavior checklist 2/3. Burlington, VT: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  5. Barkley, R. A. (1990). Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  6. Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 65–94. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.121.1.65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barkley, R. A. (2003). Attention deficit/Hyperactivity disorder. In E. J. Mash, & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Child psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 75–143). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  8. Barkley, R. A., & Biederman, J. (1997). Toward a broader definition of the age-of-onset criterion for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1204–1210. doi:10.1097/00004583-199709000-00012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berwid, O. G., Curko Kera, E. A., Marks, D. J., Santra, A., Bender, H. A., & Halperin, J. M. (2005). Sustained attention and response inhibition in young children at risk for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 46, 1219–1229. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.00417.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Biederman, J., Faraone, S., Milberger, S., Curtis, S., Chen, L., Marrs, A., et al. (1996). Predictors of persistence and remission of ADHD into adolescence: results from a four-year prospective follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 343–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bracken, B. A. (1984). Bracken basic concepts scale. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corp.Google Scholar
  12. Campbell, S. B. (2002). Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental issues (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  13. Campbell, S. B., Pierce, E. W., March, C. L., Ewing, L. J., & Szumowski, E. K. (1994). Hard-to-manage preschool boys: symptomatic behavior across contexts and time. Child Development, 65, 836–851. doi:10.2307/1131422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Campbell, S. B., Pierce, E. W., Moore, G., Marakovitz, S., & Newby, K. (1996). Boys’ externalizing problems at elementary school: pathways from early behavior problems, maternal control, and family stress. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 701–720.Google Scholar
  15. Castellanos, F. X., Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Milham, M. P., & Tannock, R. (2006). Characterizing cognition in ADHD: beyond executive dysfunction. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 117–123. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2006.01.011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chhabildas, N., Pennington, B., & Willcutt, E. G. (2001). A comparison of neuropsychological profiles of the DSM-IV subtypes of ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 529–540. doi:10.1023/A:1012281226028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cicchetti, D., & Rogoff, F. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Corkum, P. V., & Siegel, L. S. (1993). Is the continuous performance task a valuable research tool for use with children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 34, 1217–1239. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1993.tb01784.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cummings, E. M., Davies, P., & Campbell, S. B. (2000). Developmental psychopathology and family process: Research, theory, and clinical implications. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  20. DuPaul, G. J., Power, T. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., Reid, R., McGoey, K. E., & Ikeda, M. J. (1997). Teacher ratings of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: factor structure and normative data. Psychological Assessment, 9, 436–444. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.9.4.436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Frazier, T. W., Demaree, H. A., & Youngstrom, E. A. (2004). Meta-analysis of intellectual and neuropsychological test performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychology, 18, 543–555. doi:10.1037/0894-4105.18.3.543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gresham, F. M., & Elliot, S. N. (1991). Social skills rating system. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  23. Halperin, J. M., & Schulz, K. P. (2006). Revisiting the role of the prefrontal cortex in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 560–581. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.4.560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Houghton, S., Douglas, G., West, J., Whiting, K., Wall, M., Langsford, S., et al. (1999). Differential patterns of executive function in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder according to gender and subtype. Journal of Child Neurology, 14, 801–805. doi:10.1177/088307389901401206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Klorman, R., Hazel-Fernandez, L. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Fletcher, J. M., Marchione, K. E., Holahan, J. M., et al. (1999). Executive functioning deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are independent of oppositional defiant or reading disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1148–1155. doi:10.1097/00004583-199909000-00020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lahey, B. B., Applegate, B., McBurnett, K., Biederman, J., Greenhill, L., et al. (1994). DSM-IV field trials for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1673–1685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee, S. S., Lahey, B. B., Owens, E. B., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2008). Few preschool boys and girls with ADHD are well-adjusted during adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 373–383. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9184-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Levy, F., & Hay, D. A. (Eds.).(2001). Attention, genes, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  29. Losier, B. J., McGrath, P. J., & Klein, R. M. (1996). Error patterns on the continuous performance test in non-medicated and medicated samples of children with and without ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 37, 971–987. doi:10.1111/j.14690-7610.1996.tb01494.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Marakovitz, S. E., & Campbell, S. B. (1998). Inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity from preschool to school age: performance of hard-to-manage boys on laboratory measures. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 39, 841–851. doi:10.1017/S0021963098002777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Milich, R., Balentine, A., & Lynam, D. (2001). ADHD combined type and ADHD predominantly inattentive type are distinct and unrelated disorders. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 8, 463–488. doi:10.1093/clipsy/8.4.463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Rodriguez, M. I. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science, 244, 933–938. doi:10.1126/science.2658056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nigg, J. T. (2001). Is ADHD a disinhibitory disorder? Psychological Bulletin, 127, 571–598. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.127.5.571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nigg, J. T., Blaskey, L. G., Huang-Pollock, C. L., & Rappley, M. D. (2002). Neuropsychological executive functions and DSM-IV ADHD subtypes. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 59–66. doi:10.1097/00004583-200201000-00012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nigg, J. T., Willcutt, E. G., Doyle, A. E., & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2005). Causal heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: do we need neuropsychologically impaired subtypes? Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1224–1230. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.08.025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pelham, W. E., Gnagy, E., Greenslade, K. E., & Milich, R. (1992). Teacher ratings of DSM-III-R symptoms for the disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 210–218. doi:10.1097/00004583-199203000-00006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pennington, B. F., & Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 37, 51–87. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1996.tb01380.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Reynell, J. (1991). Reynell Developmental Language Scales (U.S. edition). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  39. Rosvold, H. E., Mirsky, A. G., Sarason, I., Bransome, E. D., & Beck, L. H. (1956). A continuous performance test of brain damage. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 20, 343–350. doi:10.1037/h0043220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sergeant, J. A. (2005). Modeling attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a critical appraisal of the cognitive-energetic model. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1248–1255. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.09.010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sherman, D. K., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. K. (1997). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder dimensions: a twin study of inattention and impulsivity-hyperactivity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 745–753. doi:10.1097/00004583-199706000-00010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2002). Psychological heterogeneity in AD/HD–a dual pathway model of behaviour and cognition. Behavioural Brain Research, 130, 29–36. doi:10.1016/S0166-4328(01)00432-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2005). Causal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: from common simple deficits to multiple developmental pathways. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1231–1238. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.09.008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Dalen, L., Daley, D., & Remington, B. (2002). Are planning, working memory, and inhibition associated with individual differences in preschool ADHD symptoms? Developmental Neuropsychology, 21, 255–272. doi:10.1207/S15326942DN2103_3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Dalen, L., & Remington, B. (2003). Do executive deficits and delay aversion make independent contributions to preschool attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1335–1342. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000087564.34977.21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Swanson, J. M., Kraemer, H. C., Hinshaw, S. P., et al. (2001). Clinical relevance of the primary findings of the MTA: Success rates based on severity of ADHD and ODD symptoms at the end of treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 168–179. doi:10.1097/00004583-200102000-00011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tannock, R. (1998). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: advances in cognitive, neurobiological, and genetic research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 39, 65–69. doi:10.1017/S0021963097001777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. von Stauffenberg, C., & Campbell, S. B. (2007). Predicting the early developmental course of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 536–552. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2007.06.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Welsh, M. C. (1991). Rule-guided behavior and self-monitoring on the Tower of Hanoi disk-transfer task. Cognitive Development, 6, 59–76. doi:10.1016/0885-2014(91)90006-Y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations