Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 567–589 | Cite as

A Meta-analytic Review of Components Associated with Parent Training Program Effectiveness

  • Jennifer Wyatt KaminskiEmail author
  • Linda Anne Valle
  • Jill H. Filene
  • Cynthia L. Boyle


This component analysis used meta-analytic techniques to synthesize the results of 77 published evaluations of parent training programs (i.e., programs that included the active acquisition of parenting skills) to enhance behavior and adjustment in children aged 0–7. Characteristics of program content and delivery method were used to predict effect sizes on measures of parenting behaviors and children’s externalizing behavior. After controlling for differences attributable to research design, program components consistently associated with larger effects included increasing positive parent–child interactions and emotional communication skills, teaching parents to use time out and the importance of parenting consistency, and requiring parents to practice new skills with their children during parent training sessions. Program components consistently associated with smaller effects included teaching parents problem solving; teaching parents to promote children’s cognitive, academic, or social skills; and providing other, additional services. The results have implications for selection and strengthening of existing parent training programs.


Parent training Meta-analysis Child behavior problems Component analysis 


  1. Adams, C. D., & Kelley, M. L. (1992). Managing sibling aggression: Overcorrection as an alternative to time-out. Behavior Therapy, 23, 707–717.Google Scholar
  2. Albarracín, D., McNatt, P. S., Klein, C. T. F., Ho, R. M., Mitchell, A. L., & Kumkale, G. T. (2003). Persuasive communications to change actions: An analysis of behavioral and cognitive impact in HIV prevention. Health Psychology, 22, 166–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altman, D. G., Schulz, K. F., Moher, D., Egger, M., Davidoff, F., Elbourne, D., et al. (2001). The revised CONSORT statement for reporting randomized trials: Explanation and elaboration. Annals of Internal Medicine, 134, 663–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anastopoulos, A. D., Shelton, T. L., DuPaul, G. J., & Guevremont, D. C. (1993). Parent training for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Its impact on parent functioning. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 581–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Arthur Jr., W., Bennett Jr., W., Stanush, P. L., & McNelly, T. L. (1998). Factors that influence skill decay and retention: A quantitative review and analysis. Human Performance, 11, 57–101.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  7. Barber, J. G. (1992). Evaluating parent education groups: Effects on sense of competence and social isolation. Research on Social Work Practice, 2, 28–38.Google Scholar
  8. Barhava-Monteith, G., Harre, N., & Field, J. (1999). A promising start: An evaluation of the HIPPY program in New Zealand. Early Child Development and Care, 159, 145–157.Google Scholar
  9. Barkley, R. S. (1997). Defiant children (2nd Ed.) New York: The Guilford.Google Scholar
  10. Barkley, R. A., Shelton, T. L., Crosswait, C., Moorehouse, M., Fletcher, K., Barrett, S., et al. (1996). Preliminary findings of an early intervention program with aggressive hyperactive children. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 794, 277–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barrett, P. M., Dadds, M. R., & Rapee, R. M. (1996). Family treatment of childhood anxiety: A controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 333–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Barth, R. P. (1991). An experimental evaluation of in-home child abuse prevention services. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 363–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Barth, R. P., Landsverk, J., Chamberlain, P., Reid, J. B., Rolls, J. A., Hurlburt, M. S., et al. (2005). Parent-training programs in child welfare services: Planning for a more evidence-based approach to serving biological parents. Research on Social Work Practice, 15, 353–371.Google Scholar
  14. Bernal, M. E., Klinnert, M. D., & Schultz, L. Q. (1980). Outcome evaluation of behavioral parent training and client-centered parent counseling for children with conduct problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 677–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Borrelli, B., Sepinwall, D., Ernst, D., Bellg, A. J., Czajkowski, S., Breger, R., et al. (2005). A new tool to assess treatment fidelity and evaluation of treatment fidelity across 10 years of health behavior research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 852–860.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bradley, R. H., Whiteside, L., Mundfrom, D. J., Casey, P. H., Caldwell, B. M., & Barrett, K. (1994). Impact of the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) on the home environments of infants born prematurely and with low birthweight. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 531–541.Google Scholar
  17. Bratton, S., & Landreth, G. (1995). Filial therapy with single parents: Effects on parental acceptance, empathy, and stress. International Journal of Play Therapy, 4, 61–80.Google Scholar
  18. Broidy, L. M., Nagin, D. S., Tremblay, R. E., Bates, J. E., Brame, B., Dodge, K. A., et al. (2003). Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behaviors and adolescent delinquency: A six-site, cross-national study. Developmental Psychology, 39, 222–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Brooks, R. B. (2005). The power of parenting. In S. Goldstein, & R. B. Brooks (Eds.) Handbook of resilience in children (pp. 297–314). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  20. Budd, K. S., & Itzkowitz, J. S. (1990). Parents as social skill trainers and evaluators of children. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 12, 13–30.Google Scholar
  21. Capaldi, D., DeGarmo, D., Patterson, G. R., & Forgatch, M. (2002). Contextual risk across early life span and association with antisocial behavior. In J. Reid, J. R. Patterson, & J. Snyder (Eds.) Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and model for intervention (pp. 123–145). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  22. Cedar, B., & Levant, R. F. (1990). A meta-analysis of the effects of Parent Effectiveness Training. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 18, 373–384.Google Scholar
  23. Chadwick Center on Children and Families (2004). Closing the quality chasm in child abuse treatment: Identifying and disseminating best practices. San Diego, CA: Chadwick Center on Children and Families.Google Scholar
  24. Chaffin, M., & Valle, L. A. (2003). Dynamic risk prediction characteristics of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. Child Abuse and Neglect, 27, 463–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., & Toth, S. L. (2000). The efficacy of Toddler–Parent Psychotherapy for fostering cognitive development of offspring in depressed mothers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 135–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1998). Aggression and antisocial behavior. In W. Damon, & N. Eisenberg (Eds.) Handbook of child psychology: Vol 3: Social, emotional, and personality development (5th Ed., pp. 779–862). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  27. Conger, R. D., Patterson, G. R., & Ge, X. (1995). It takes two to replicate: A mediational model for the impact of parents’ stress on adolescent adjustment. Child Development, 66, 80–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Connell, S., Sanders, M. R., & Markie-Dadds, C. (1997). Self-directed behavioral family intervention for parents of oppositional children in rural and remote areas. Behavior Modification, 21, 379–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Connolly, L., Sharry, J., & Fitzpatrick, C. (2001). Evaluation of a group treatment programme for parents of children with behavioural disorders. Child Psychology and Psychiatry Review, 6, 159–165.Google Scholar
  30. Costas, M., & Landreth, G. (1999). Filial therapy with nonoffending parents of children who have been sexually abused. International Journal of Play Therapy, 8, 43–66.Google Scholar
  31. Crosby, J., & Perkins, S. (2004). The effectiveness of behavioral parent training in the treatment of conduct problems in children and adolescents. Poster session presented at the 38th Annual Convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, November, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  32. Cunningham, C. E., Bremner, R., & Boyle, M. (1995). Large group community-based parenting programs for families of preschoolers at risk for disruptive behavior disorders: Utilization, cost effectiveness, and outcome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 1141–1159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Davis, H., & Spurr, P. (1998). Parent counseling: An evaluation of a community child mental health service. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 365–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. DeGarmo, D. S., Patterson, G. R., & Forgatch, M. S. (2004). How do outcomes in a specified parent training intervention maintain or wane over time? Prevention Science, 5, 72–89.Google Scholar
  35. Evans, I. M., & Okifuji, A. (1992). Home-school partnerships: A behavioural-community approach to childhood behaviour disorders. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 21, 14–24.Google Scholar
  36. Evans, I. M., Okifuji, A., Engler, L., Bromley, K., & Tishelman, A. (1993). Home-school communication in the treatment of childhood behavior problems. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 15, 37–60.Google Scholar
  37. Eyberg, S. M. (2003). Parent–Child Interaction Therapy. In T. H. Ollendick, & C. S. Schroeder (Eds.) Encyclopedia of clinical child and pediatric psychology (pp. 446–447). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  38. Faith, M. S., Allison, D. B., & Gorman, B. S. (1997). Meta-analysis of single-case research. In R. D. Franklin, D. B. Allison, & B. S. Gorman (Eds.) Design and analysis of single-case research (pp. 245–277). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  39. Farrington, D. P., Joliffe, D., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Hill, K. G., & Kosterman, R. (2003). Comparing delinquency careers in court records and self-reports. Criminology, 41, 933–958.Google Scholar
  40. Fennell, D. C., & Fishel, A. H. (1998). Parent education: An evaluation of STEP on abusive parents’ perceptions and abuse potential. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 11, 107–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Lynskey, M. (1994). The childhoods of multiple problem adolescents: A 15-year longitudinal study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 1123–1140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fewell, R. R., & Wheeden, C. A. (1998). A pilot study of intervention with adolescent mothers and their children: A preliminary examination of child outcomes. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 18, 18–25.Google Scholar
  43. Fitzpatrick, P., Molloy, B., & Johnson, Z. (1996). Community mothers’ programme: Extension to the travelling community in Ireland. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 51, 299–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Forgatch, M. S., & DeGarmo, D. S. (1999). Parenting through change: An effective prevention program for single mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 711–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Forgatch, M. S., & DeGarmo, D. S. (2002). Extending and testing the social interaction learning model with divorce samples. In J. B. Reid, G. R. Patterson, & J. Snyder (Eds.) Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents (pp. 235–257). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  46. Gaudin, J. M., Wodarski, J. S., Arkinson, M. K., & Avery, L. S. (1990). Remedying child neglect: Effectiveness of social network interventions. The Journal of Applied Social Sciences, 15, 97–123.Google Scholar
  47. Gelfand, D. M., Teti, D. M., Seiner, S. A., & Jameson, P. B. (1996). Helping mothers fight depression: Evaluation of a home-based intervention program for depressed mothers and their infants. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25, 406–422.Google Scholar
  48. Glover, G. J., & Landreth, G. L. (2000). Filial therapy with Native Americans on the Flathead Reservation. International Journal of Play Therapy, 9, 57–80.Google Scholar
  49. Greenland, S. (1994). A critical look at some popular meta-analytic methods. American Journal of Epidemiology, 140, 290–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Griff, M. D. (1999). Intergenerational play therapy: The influence of grandparents in family systems. Child and Youth Services, 20, 63–76.Google Scholar
  51. Gross, D., Fogg, L., & Tucker, S. (1995). The efficacy of parent training for promoting positive parent–toddler relationships. Research in Nursing and Health, 18, 489–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Harris, Z. L., & Landreth, G. (1997). Filial therapy with incarcerated mothers: A five-week model. International Journal of Play Therapy, 6, 53–73.Google Scholar
  53. Hattie, J., Biggs, J., & Purdie, N. (1996). Effects of learning skills interventions on student learning: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 66, 99–136.Google Scholar
  54. Hedges, L. V. (1983). A random effects model for effect sizes. Psychological Bulletin, 93, 388–395.Google Scholar
  55. Hedges, L. V. (1994). Fixed effects models. In H. Cooper, & L. V. Hedges (Eds.) The handbook of research synthesis (pp. 285–299). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  56. Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Boston: Academic.Google Scholar
  57. Horn, W. F., Ialongo, N., Greenberg, G., Packard, T., & Smith-Winberry, C. (1990). Additive effects of behavioral parent training and self-control therapy with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity disordered children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19, 98–110.Google Scholar
  58. Hutcheson, J. J., Black, M. M., Talley, M., Dubowitz, H., Howard, J. B., Starr Jr., R. H., et al. (1997). Risk status and home intervention among children with Failure-to-Thrive: Follow-up at age 4. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 22, 651–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hutchings, J., Appleton, P., Smith, M., Lane, E., & Nash, S. (2002). Evaluation of two treatments for children with severe behaviour problems: Child behaviour and maternal mental health outcomes. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 30, 279–295.Google Scholar
  60. Infant Health and Development Program, (1990). Enhancing the outcomes of low-birth-weight, premature infants: A multisite, randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263, 3035–3042.Google Scholar
  61. Jason, L. A., Pokorny, S. B., Kohner, K., & Benetto, L. (1994). An evaluation of the short-term impact of a media-based substance abuse prevention programme. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 4, 63–69.Google Scholar
  62. Johnson, Z., Howell, F., & Molloy, B. (1993). Community mothers’ programme: Randomised controlled trial of non-professional intervention in parenting. British Medical Journal, 306, 1449–1452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development (3rd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  64. Kale, A. L., & Landreth, G. L. (1999). Filial therapy with parents of children experiencing learning difficulties. International Journal of Play Therapy, 8, 35–56.Google Scholar
  65. Kissman, K. (1992). Parent skills training: Expanding school-based services for adolescent mothers. Research on Social Work Practice, 2, 161–171.Google Scholar
  66. Koniak-Griffin, D., & Verzemnieks, I. (1991). Effects of nursing intervention on adolescents’ maternal role attainment. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 14, 121–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Koniak-Griffin, D., Verzemnieks, I., & Cahill, D. (1992). Using videotape instruction and feedback to improve adolescents’ mothering behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13, 570–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159–174.Google Scholar
  69. Landreth, G. L., & Lobaugh, A. F. (1998). Filial therapy with incarcerated fathers: Effects on parental acceptance of child, parental stress, and child adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 76, 157–165.Google Scholar
  70. Lee, J. H., & Holland, T. P. (1991). Evaluating the effectiveness of foster parent training. Research on Social Work Practice, 1, 162–174.Google Scholar
  71. Letourneau, N., Drummond, J., Fleming, D., Kysela, G., McDonald, L., & Stewart, M. (2001). Supporting parents: Can intervention improve parent–child relationships? Journal of Family Nursing, 7, 159–187.Google Scholar
  72. Lipsey, M. W. (2003). Those confounded moderators in meta-analysis: Good, bad, and ugly. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 587, 69–81.Google Scholar
  73. Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., & Waschbusch, D. A. (1998). Serious and violent juvenile offenders. In R. Loeber, & D. P. Farrington (Eds.) Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 13–29). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  74. Lundahl, B., & Harris, N. (2006). Delivering parent training to families at risk to abuse: Lessons from three meta-analyses. The APSAC Advisor, 18(3), 7–11.Google Scholar
  75. Lundahl, B. W., Nimer, J., & Parsons, B. (2006a). Preventing child abuse: A meta-analysis of parent training programs. Research on Social Work Practice, 16, 251–262.Google Scholar
  76. Lundahl, B. W., Risser, H. J., & Lovejoy, M. C. (2006b). A meta-analysis of parent training: Moderators and follow-up effects. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 86–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lyons-Ruth, K., Connell, D. B., Grunebaum, H. U., & Botein, S. (1990). Infants at social risk: Maternal depression and family support services as mediators of infant development and security of attachment. Child Development, 61, 85–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. MacKenzie, E. P., & Hilgedick, J. M. (1999). The Computer-Assisted Parenting Program (CAPP): The use of a computerized behavioral parent training program as an educational tool. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 21, 23–43.Google Scholar
  79. Magen, R. H., & Rose, S. D. (1994). Parents in groups: Problem solving versus behavioral skills training. Research on Social Work Practice, 4, 172–191.Google Scholar
  80. Maguin, E., Zucker, R. A., & Fitzgerald, H. E. (1994). The path to alcohol problems through conduct problems: A family-based approach to very early intervention with risk. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4, 249–269.Google Scholar
  81. Maughan, D. R., Christiansen, E., Jenson, W. R., Olympia, D., & Clark, E. (2005). Behavioral parent training as a treatment for externalizing behaviors and disruptive behavior disorders: A meta-analysis. School Psychology Review, 34, 267–286.Google Scholar
  82. McBride, B. A. (1991a). Parent education and support programs for fathers: Outcome effects on paternal involvement. Early Child Development and Care, 67, 73–85.Google Scholar
  83. McBride, B. A. (1991b). Parental support programs and paternal stress: An exploratory study. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 6, 137–149.Google Scholar
  84. McCart, M. R., Priester, P. E., Davies, W. H., & Azen, R. (2006). Differential effectiveness of behavioral parent-braining and cognitive-behavioral therapy for antisocial youth: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 527–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. McMahon, R. J., & Forehand, R. L. (2003). Helping the noncompliant child: Family-based treatment for oppositional behavior (2nd Ed.), New York: The Guilford.Google Scholar
  86. McNeil, C. B., Capage, L. C., Bahl, A., & Blanc, H. (1999). Importance of early intervention for disruptive behavior problems: Comparison of treatment and waitlist-control groups. Early Education and Development, 10, 445–454.Google Scholar
  87. McNeil, C. B., Eyberg, S., Eisenstadt, T. H., Newcomb, K., & Funderburk, B. (1991). Parent–Child Interaction Therapy with behavior problem children: Generalization of treatment effects to the school setting. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20, 140–151.Google Scholar
  88. Metropolitan Area Child Study Research Group, (2002). A cognitive–ecological approach to preventing aggression in urban settings: Initial outcomes for high-risk children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 179–294.Google Scholar
  89. Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2001). Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 355–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Harrington, H., & Milne, B. J. (2002). Males on the life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: Follow-up at age 26 years. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 179–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Moher, D., Schulz, K. F., & Altman, D. (2001). The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 1987–1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Moskowitz, J. M. (1989). Preliminary guidelines for reporting outcome evaluation studies of health promotion and disease prevention programs. New Directions in Program Evaluation, 43, 101–111.Google Scholar
  93. Mullin, E., & Quigley, K. (1994). A controlled evaluation of the impact of a parent training programme on child behaviour and mothers’ general well-being. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 7, 167–179.Google Scholar
  94. Myers, H. F., Alvy, K. T., Arrington, A., Richardson, M. A., Marigna, M., Huff, R., et al. (1992). The impact of a parent training program on inner-city African-American families. Journal of Community Psychology, 20, 132–147.Google Scholar
  95. Nelson, W. P., & Levant, R. F. (1991). An evaluation of a skills training program for parents in stepfamilies. Family Relations, 40, 291–296.Google Scholar
  96. Nicholson, B., Anderson, M., Fox, R., & Brenner, V. (2002). One family at a time: A prevention program for at-risk parents. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80, 362–371.Google Scholar
  97. Nixon, R. D. V., Sweeney, L., Erickson, D. B., & Touyz, S. W. (2003). Parent–Child Interaction Therapy: A comparison of standard and abbreviated treatments for oppositional defiant children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 251–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Odom, S. E. (1996). Effects of an educational intervention on mothers of male children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 13, 207–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Orwin, R. G. (1983). A fail-safe N for effect size in meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Statistics, 8, 157–159.Google Scholar
  100. Patterson, G. R. (1980). Mothers: The unacknowledged victims. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 45(5), 1–54 (Serial No. 186).Google Scholar
  101. Patterson, G. R., DeGarmo, D., & Forgatch, M. S. (2004). Systematic changes in families following prevention trials. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 621–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Pehrson, K. L., & Robinson, C. C. (1990). Parent education: Does it make a difference? Child Study Journal, 20, 221–236.Google Scholar
  103. Pisterman, S., Firestone, P., McGrath, P., Goodman, J. T., Webster, I., Mallory, R., et al. (1992a). The effects of parent training on parenting stress and sense of competence. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 24, 41–58.Google Scholar
  104. Pisterman, S., Firestone, P., McGrath, P., Goodman, J. T., Webster, I., Mallory, R., et al. (1992b). The role of parent training in treatment of preschoolers with ADDH. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62, 397–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Raudenbusch, S. W. (1994). Random effects models. In H. Cooper, & L. V. Hedges (Eds.) The handbook of research synthesis (pp. 301–336). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  106. Reid, M. J., Walter, A. L., & O’Leary, S. G. (1999). Treatment of young children’s bedtime refusal and nighttime wakings: A comparison of “standard” and graduated ignoring procedures. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 5–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Reifsnider, E. (1998). Reversing growth deficiency in children: The effect of a community-based intervention. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 12, 305–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Reyno, S. M., & McGrath, P. J. (2006). Predictors of parent training efficacy for child externalizing behavior problems—A meta-analytic review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 99–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Rosenthal, R. (1995). Writing meta-analytic reviews. Psychological Bulletin, 118, 183–192.Google Scholar
  110. Salas, E., & Cannon-Bowers, J. A. (2001). The science of training: A decade of progress. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 471–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Sanders, M. R., Markie-Dadds, C., Tully, L. A., & Bor, W. (2000a). The Triple-P Positive Parenting Program: A comparison of enhanced, standard, and self-directed behavioral family intervention for parents of children with early onset conduct problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 624–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Sanders, M. R., Montgomery, D. T., & Brechman-Toussaint, M. L. (2000b). The mass media and the prevention of child behavior problems: The evaluation of a television series to promote positive outcomes for parents and their children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 939–948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Schuhmann, E. M., Foote, R. C., Eyberg, S. M., Boggs, S. R., & Algina, J. (1998). Efficacy of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy: Interim report of a randomized trial with short-term maintenance. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 34–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Schuhler, M. E., Nair, P., & Black, M. M. (2002). Ongoing maternal drug use, parenting attitudes, and a home intervention: Effects on mother–child interaction at 18 months. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 23, 87–94.Google Scholar
  115. Serketich, W. J., & Dumas, J. E. (1996). The effectiveness of behavioral parent training to modify antisocial behavior in children: A meta-analysis. Behavior Therapy, 27, 171–186.Google Scholar
  116. Shadish, W. R., Robinson, L., & Lu, C. (1999). ES: A computer program for effect size calculation. St. Paul, MN: Assessment Systems.Google Scholar
  117. Skowron, E., & Reinemann, D. H. S. (2005). Effectiveness of psychological interventions for child maltreatment: A meta-analysis. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42, 52–71.Google Scholar
  118. Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Daley, D., Thompson, M., Laver-Bradbury, C., & Weeks, A. (2001). Parent-based therapies for preschool attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized controlled trial with a community sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 402–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Stock, W. A. (1994). Systematic coding for research synthesis. In H. Cooper, & L. V. Hedges (Eds.) The handbook of research synthesis (pp. 125–138). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  120. Swanson, H. L., & Hoskyn, M. (2001). A meta-analysis of intervention research for adolescent students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 109–119.Google Scholar
  121. Sweet, M. A., & Appelbaum, M. I. (2004). Is home visiting an effective strategy? A meta-analytic review of home visiting programs for families with young children. Child Development, 75, 1435–1456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Taylor, T. K., Schmidt, F., Pepler, D., & Hodgins, C. (1998). A comparison of eclectic treatment with Webster-Stratton’s Parents and Children Series in a children’s mental health center: A randomized controlled trial. Behavior Therapy, 29, 221–240.Google Scholar
  123. Thomas, R., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2007). Behavioral outcomes of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy and Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 475–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Thompson, R. W., Ruma, P. R., Schuchmann, L. F., & Burke, R. V. (1996). A cost-effectiveness evaluation of parent training. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 5, 415–429.Google Scholar
  125. Tolan, P. H., & Gorman-Smith, D. (1998). Development of serious and violent offending careers. In R. Loeber, & D. P. Farrington (Eds.) Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 68–85). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  126. Tolliver, R. M., Valle, L. A., Dopke, C. A., Serra, L. D., & Milner, J. S. (1998). Child physical abuse. In N. A. Jackson, & G. C. Oates (Eds.) Violence in intimate relationships (pp. 1–23). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  127. Tonge, B., Brereton, A., Kiomall, M., Mackinnon, A., King, N., & Rinehart, N. (2006). Effects on parental mental health of an education and skills training program for parents of young children with autism: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 561–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Thornberry, T. P., Lizotte, A. J., Krohn, M. D., Smith, C. A., & Porter, P. K. (2003). Causes and consequences of delinquency: Findings from the Rochester Youth Development Study. In T. P. Thornberry, & M. D. Krohn (Eds.) Taking stock of delinquency: An overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies (pp. 11–46). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  129. Tremblay, R. E. (2006). Prevention of youth violence: Why not start at the beginning? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 481–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Vines, S. W., & Williams-Burgess, C. (1994). Effects of a community health nursing parent–baby (ad)venture program on depression and other selected maternal–child health outcomes. Public Health Nursing, 11, 188–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Wahler, R. G., & Meginnis, K. L. (1997). Strengthening child compliance through positive parenting practices: What works? Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26, 433–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Walker, H. M., Kavanagh, K., Stiller, B., Golly, A., Severson, H. H., & Feil, E. G. (1998). First Step to Success: An early intervention approach for preventing school antisocial behavior. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 6, 66–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Wampold, B. E. (2001). The great psychotherapy debate. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  134. Webb, T. L., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Does changing behavioral intentions engender behavior change? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 249–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Webster-Stratton, C. (1990). Enhancing the effectiveness of self-administered videotape parent training for families with conduct-problem children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 479–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Webster-Stratton, C. (1992). Individually administered videotape parent training: “Who benefits?”. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16, 31–35.Google Scholar
  137. Webster-Stratton, C. (1998). Preventing conduct problems in head start children: Strengthening parenting competencies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 715–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Webster-Stratton, C. (2000). The Incredible Years training series bulletin. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  139. Webster-Stratton, C., & Hammond, M. (1997). Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: A comparison of child and parent training interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 93–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, M. J., & Hammond, M. (2001). Preventing conduct problems, promoting social competence: A parent and teacher training partnership in Head Start. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 283–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Westen, D., Novotny, C. M., & Thompson-Brenner, H. (2004). The empirical status of empirically supported psychotherapies: Assumptions, findings, and reporting in controlled clinical trials. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 631–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Wilczak, G. L., & Markstrom, C. A. (1999). The effects of parent education on parental locus of control and satisfaction of incarcerated fathers. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 43, 90–102.Google Scholar
  143. Wilson, D. B. (2002). SPSS macros. Retrieved July 8, 2005, from
  144. Wilson, D. B., & Lipsey, M. W. (2001). The role of method in treatment effectiveness research: Evidence from meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 6, 413–429.Google Scholar
  145. Wilson, D. B., & Lipsey, M. W. (2003). The role of method in treatment effectiveness research: Evidence from meta-analysis. In A. E. Kazdin (Ed.)Methodological issues and strategies in clinical research (3rd Ed., pp. 589–615). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer Wyatt Kaminski
    • 1
    Email author
  • Linda Anne Valle
    • 1
  • Jill H. Filene
    • 2
  • Cynthia L. Boyle
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and ControlCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.James Bell AssociatesArlingtonUSA
  3. 3.University of KansasAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations