Advertisement

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp 745–758 | Cite as

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Behavioral Inhibition: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Stop-signal Paradigm

  • R. Matt Alderson
  • Mark D. Rapport
  • Michael J. Kofler
Article

Abstract

Deficient behavioral inhibition (BI) processes are considered a core feature of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This meta-analytic review is the first to examine the potential influence of a wide range of subject and task variable moderator effects on BI processes—assessed by the stop-signal paradigm—in children with ADHD relative to typically developing children. Results revealed significantly slower mean reaction time (MRT), greater reaction time variability (SDRT), and slower stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) in children with ADHD relative to controls. The non-significant between-group stop-signal delay (SSD) metric, however, suggests that stop-signal reaction time differences reflect a more generalized deficit in attention/cognitive processing rather than behavioral inhibition. Several subject and task variables served as significant moderators for children’s mean reaction time.

Keywords

Stop-signal Behavioral inhibition Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD Meta-analysis 

References

  1. Aman, C. J., Roberts, R. J., & Pennington, B. F. (1998). A neuropsychological examination of the underlying deficit in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Frontal lobe versus right parietal lobe theories. Developmental Psychology, 34(5), 956–969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.) text revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Experimental Psychology, 49A(1), 5–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Band, G. P. H., van der Molen, M. W., & Logan, G. D. (2003). Horse-race model simulations of the stop-signal procedure. Acta Psychologica, 112, 105–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121(1), 65–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barkley, R. A. (2005). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  7. Bedard, A.-C., Nichols, S., Barbosa, J. A., Schachar, R., Logan, G. D., & Tannock, R. (2002). The development of selective inhibitory control across the life span. Developmental Neuropsychology, 21(1), 93–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brandeis, D., van Leeuwen, T. H., Rubia, K., Vitacco, D., Steger, J., Pascual-Marqui, R. D., et al. (1998). Neuroelectric mapping reveals precursor of stop failures in children with attention deficits. Behavioural Brain Research, 94, 111–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Castellanos, F. X., Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Scheres, A., Di Martino, A., Hyde, C., & Walters, J. R. (2005). Varieties of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-related intra-individual variability. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1416–1423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castellanos, F. X., & Tannock, R. (2002). Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The search for endophenotypes. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 617–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Daugherty, T. K., Quay, H. C., & Ramos, L. (1993). Response perseveration, inhibitory control, and central dopaminergic activity in childhood behavior disorders. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 154(2), 177–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Denney, C. B., Rapport, M. D., & Chung, K. M. (2005). Interactions of task and subject variables among continuous performance tests. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 420–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Diamond, A. (2000). Close interrelation of motor development and cognitive development and of the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex. Child Development, 71, 44–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dimoska, A., Johnstone, S. J., Barry, R. J., & Clarke, A. R. (2003). Inhibitory motor control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Event-related potentials in the stop-signal paradigm. Society of Biological Psychiatry, 54, 1345–1354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dolphin, J. E., & Cruickshank, W. M. (1951). Pathology of concept formation in children with cerebral palsy. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 56, 386–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Douglas, V. I. (1972). Stop, look, and listen: The problem of sustained attention and impulse control in hyperactive and normal children. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 4, 259–282.Google Scholar
  17. Douglas, V. I. (1999). Cognitive control processes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In H. C. Quay (Ed.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders (pp. 105–138). The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  18. Douglas, V. I., & Parry, P. A. (1983). Effects of reward on delayed reaction time task performance of hyperactive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2, 313–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gray, J. A. (1982). The neuropsychology of anxiety. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Hedges, L. (1982). Estimation of effect sizes from a series of independent experiments. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 490–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Holmbeck, G. N. (1997). Toward terminological, conceptual, and statistical clarity in the study of mediators and moderators: Examples from the child-clinical and pediatric literatures. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 599–610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hooks, K., Milich, R., & Lorch, E. P. (1994). Sustained and selective attention in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 69–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Iaboni, F., Douglas, V. I., & Baker, A. G. (1995). Effects of reward and response costs on inhibition in ADHD children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104(1), 232–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kalff, A. C., De Sonneville, L. M. J., Hurks, P. P. M., Hendriksen, J. G. M., Kroes, M., Feron, F. J. M., et al. (2005). Speed, speed variability, and accuracy of information processing in 5 to 6-year-old children at risk of ADHD. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11(2), 173–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Konrad, K., Gauggel, S., Manz, A., & Scholl, M. (2000a). Lack of inhibition: A motivational deficit in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and children with traumatic brain injury. Child Neuropsychology, 6(4), 286–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Konrad, K., Gauggel, S., Manz, A., & Scholl, M. (2000b). Inhibitory control in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Brain Injury, 14(10), 859–875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kuntsi, J., Oosterlaan, J., & Stevenson, J. (2001). Psychological mechanisms in hyperactivity: I Response inhibition deficit, working memory impairment, delay aversion, or something else? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(2), 199–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lijffijt, M., Kenemans, L., Verbaten, M. N., & van Engeland, H. (2005). A meta-analytic review of stopping performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Deficient inhibitory motor control? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(2), 216–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. California: Sage.Google Scholar
  30. Logan, G. (1981). Attention, automaticity, and the ability to stop a speeded choice response. In J. Long & A. D. Baddeley (Eds.), Attention and performance IX (pp. 205–222). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Logan, G. D. (1994). On the ability to inhibit thought and action: A users’ guide to the stop signal paradigm. In D. Dagenbach & T. H. Carr (Eds.), Inhibitory processes in attention, memory, and language (pp. 189–239). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  32. Logan, G. D., Cowan, W. B., & Davis, K. A. (1984). On the ability to inhibit simple and choice reaction time responses: A model and a method. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 10(2), 276–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Logan, G. D., Schachar, R. J., & Tannock, R. (1997). Impulsivity and inhibitory control. Psychological Science, 8(1), 60–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lorber, M. F. (2004). Psychophysiology of aggression, psychopathy, and conduct problems: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 130(4), 531–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Losier, B. J., McGrath, P. J., & Klein, R. M. (1996). Error patterns of the continuous performance test in non-medicated and medicated samples of children with and without ADHD: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 37(8), 971–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Manassis, K., Tannock, R., & Barbosa, J. (2000). Dichotic listening and response inhibition in children with comorbid anxiety disorders and ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(9), 1152–1159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Martinussen, R., Hayden, J., Hogg-Johnson, S., & Tannock, R. (2005). A meta-analysis of working memory impairments in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(4), 377–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McGrath, A. M., Handwerk, M. L., Armstrong, K. J., Lucas, C. P., & Friman, P. C. (2004). The validity of the ADHD section of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Behavior Modification, 28, 349–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McInerney, R. J., & Kerns, K. A. (2003). Time reproduction in children with ADHD: Motivation matters. Child Neuropsychology, 9(2), 91–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Michas, I. C., & Henry, L. A. (1994). The link between phonological memory and vocabulary acquisition. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 12(2), 147–163.Google Scholar
  41. Nigg, J. T. (1999). The ADHD response-inhibition deficit as measured by the stop task: Replication with DSM-IV combined type, extension, and qualification. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 27(5), 393–402.Google Scholar
  42. Nigg, J. T. (2001). Is ADHD a disinhibitory disorder? Psychological Bulletin, 127(5), 571–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nigg, J. T., Blaskey, L. G., Huang-Pollock, C. L., & Rappley, M. D. (2002). Neuropsychological executive functions and DSM-IV ADHD subtypes. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 59–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Oosterlaan, J., Logan, G. D., & Sergeant, J. A. (1998). Response inhibition in AD/HD, CD, comorbid AD/HD+CD, anxious, and control children: A meta-analysis of studies with the stop task. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 411–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Oosterlaan, J., & Sergeant, J. A. (1996). Inhibition in ADHD, aggressive, and anxious children: A biologically based model of child psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24(1), 19–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Overtoom, C. C. E., Kenemans, J. L., Verbaten, M. N., Kemner, C., van der Molen, M. W., van Engeland, H., et al. (2002). Inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A psychophysiological study of the stop task. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 668–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pickering, S. J., Gathercole, S. E., & Peaker, S. M. (1998).Verbal visuospatial short-term memory in children: Evidence for common and distinct mechanisms. Memory & Cognition, 26(6), 1117–1130.Google Scholar
  48. Pliszka, S. R., Borcherding, S. H., Spratley, K., Leon, S., & Irick, S. (1997). Measuring inhibitory control. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 18(4), 254–259.Google Scholar
  49. Pliszka, S. R., Liotti, M., & Woldorff, M. G. (2000). Inhibitory control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Event-related potentials identify the processing component and timing of an impaired right-frontal response-inhibition mechanism. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 238–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Purvis, K. L., & Tannock, R. (2000). Phonological processing, not inhibitory control, differentiates ADHD and reading disability. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(4), 485–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Quay, H. C. (1997). Inhibition and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25(1), 7–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rapport, M. D., Chung, K., Shore, G., & Isaacs, P. (2001). A conceptual model of child psychopathology: Implications for understanding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and treatment efficacy. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 48–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rapport, M. D., Timko, T. M., & Wolfe, R. (2006). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In M. Hersen (Ed.), Clinicians handbook of child behavioral assessment (pp. 401–435). San Diego: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  54. Rieger, M., & Gauggel, S. (1999). Inhibitory after-effects in the stop signal paradigm. British Journal of Psychology, 90, 509–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Roberts, M. A. (1990). A behavioral observation method for differentiating hyperactive and aggressive boys. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 131–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rosenthal, R. (1995). Writing meta-analytic reviews. Psychological Bulletin, 118(2), 183–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rubia, K., Oosterlaan, J., Sergeant, J. A., Brandeis, D., & van Leeuwen, T. (1998). Inhibitory dysfunction in hyperactive boys. Behavioural Brain Research, 94(1), 25–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schachar, R. J., Chin, S., Logan, G. D., Ornstein, T. J., Crosbie, J., Ickowicz, A., et al. (2004). Evidence for an error monitoring deficit in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(3), 285–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schachar, R., & Logan, G. D. (1990). Impulsivity and inhibitory control in normal development. Developmental Psychology, 26(5), 710–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schachar, R., Mota, V., Logan, G., Tannock, R., & Klim, P. (2000). Confirmation of an inhibitory Control Deficit in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28(3), 227–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schachar, R., Tannock, R., Marriott, M., & Logan, G. (1995). Deficient inhibitory control in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23(4), 411–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Scheres, A., Oosterlaan, J., & Sergeant, J. A. (2001). Response inhibition in children with DSM-IV subtypes of AD/HD and related disruptive disorders: The role of reward. Child Neuropsychology, 7(3), 172–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Sergeant, J. A., Oosterlaan, J., & van der Meere, J. (1999). Information processing and energetic factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders (pp. 75–104). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  64. Smith, E. E., Jonides, J., & Koeppe, R. A. (1996). Dissociating verbal and spatial working memory using PET. Cerebral Cortex, 6(1), 11–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Solanto, M. V., Abikoff, H., Sonuga-Barke, E., Schachar, R., Logan, G. D., Wigal, T., et al. (2001). The ecological validity of delay aversion and response inhibition as measures of impulsivity in AD/HD: A supplement to the NIMH multimodal treatment study of AD/HD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(3), 215–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2002). Psychological heterogeneity in AD/HD: A dual pathway model of behaviour and cognition. Behavioural Brain Research, 130(1–2), 29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stevens, J., Quittner, A. L., Zuckerman, J. B., & Moore, S. (2002). Behavioral inhibition, self-regulation of motivation, and working memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Neuropsychology, 21(2), 117–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Strauss, A. A., & Kephardt, N. C. (1955). Psychopathology and education of the brain-injured child. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  69. Strauss, A. A., & Lehtinen, L. (1947). Psychopathology and education of the brain-injured child. Oxford, England: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  70. van Meel, C. S., Oosterlaan, J., & Heslenfeld, D. J. (2005). Motivational effects on motor timing in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(5), 451–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Walcott, C. M., & Landau, S. (2004). The relation between disinhibition and emotion regulation in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(4), 772–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Williams, B. R., Ponesse, J. S., Schachar, R. J., Logan, G. D., & Tannock, R. (1999). Development of inhibitory control across the life span. Developmental Psychology, 35(1), 205–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Matt Alderson
    • 1
  • Mark D. Rapport
    • 1
  • Michael J. Kofler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA

Personalised recommendations