Modeling Rater Disagreement for ADHD: Are Parents or Teachers Biased?
- 588 Downloads
The present study is the first to utilize twin modeling to examine whether parent-teacher disagreement for ADHD ratings is due to parent or teacher bias, or due to raters observing different but valid ADHD behaviors. A joint analysis was conducted with 106 twin pairs, including twins selected for ADHD and control twin pairs. Total ADHD scores were analyzed using multiple rater models that estimate genetic and environmental contributions common to both raters and unique to each rater. Results suggest that 1) disagreement in ADHD ratings is strongly due to parents and teachers observing different ADHD behaviors, some of which is valid and some of which is due to bias, and 2) parents may be more biased than teachers in their ADHD ratings.
KeywordsADHD Rater bias Twin modeling Rater disagreement
- Aitken, A. C. (1934). Note on selection from a multivariate normal population. Proc Edinburgh Math Soc, 55, 42–58.Google Scholar
- APA. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Barkley, R., & Murphy, K. (1998). Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Clinical Workbook (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- DeFries, J. C., Filipek, P. A., Fulker, D. F., Olson, R. K., Pennington, B. F., Smith, S. D., et al. (1997). Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center. Learning Disabilities, 8, 7–79.Google Scholar
- DuPaul, G. J., Power, T. P., Anastopoulos, A. D., & Reid, R. (1998). ADHD Rating Scale – IV. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Eaves, L., Silberg, J., Meyer, J., & Maes, H. (1997). Genetics and developmental psychopathology: 2. The main effects of genes and environment on behavioral problems in the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 965–980.Google Scholar
- Gadow, K. D., & Sprafkin, J. (1999). 1999 Revised Norms and Scoring Guide Child Symptom Inventory – 4. Stony Brook, NY: Checkmate Plus.Google Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Neale, M. C. (1997). Mx: Statistical Modeling (4th ed.). Richmond, VA: Medical College of Virginia, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
- Neale, M. C., & Cardon, L. R. (1992). Methodology for Genetic Studies of Twins and Families. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.Google Scholar