Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 165–178 | Cite as

“Accept Me, or Else…”: Disputed Overestimation of Social Competence Predicts Increases in Proactive Aggression

  • Bram Orobio de CastroEmail author
  • Mara Brendgen
  • Herman Van Boxtel
  • Frank Vitaro
  • Linda Schaepers
Original Paper


It has been proposed that aggressive behavior may result from unrealistically positive self-evaluations that are disputed by others (Baumeister, Smart, & Boden, 1996). The present three studies tested this proposition concurrently and longitudinally for the domain of self-perceived social competence (SPSC) in 3–6th grade children on two continents. Each study tested whether aggressive behavior is related to general overestimation of SPSC compared to competence as perceived by peers, or to disputed overestimation, that is, overestimation disputed through rejection by peers. Specificity of relations with reactively or proactively aggressive behavior patterns was assessed and the predictive value of overestimation to the development of these types of aggressive behavior was investigated. Concurrently, disputed overestimation explained more variance in aggressive behavior than general overestimation, and was uniquely related to proactive aggression. Longitudinally, disputed overestimation also uniquely predicted changes in proactive, not reactive aggression.


Self-perception Social cognition Peer relations Aggressive behavior 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bram Orobio de Castro
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mara Brendgen
    • 2
  • Herman Van Boxtel
    • 1
  • Frank Vitaro
    • 3
  • Linda Schaepers
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Developmental PsychologyUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversite du Quebec a MontrealMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Research Unit on Children’s Psychosocial MaladjustmentUniversity of MontrealMontrealCanada

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