Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 34, Issue 6, pp 823–837 | Cite as

Resilient Adolescent Adjustment Among Girls: Buffers of Childhood Peer Rejection and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Original Paper

Abstract

Examined a risk-resilience model of peer rejection and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a 5-year longitudinal study of 209 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls aged 6–13 at baseline and 11–18 at follow-up. Risk factors were childhood ADHD diagnosis and peer rejection; hypothesized protective factors were childhood measures of self-perceived scholastic competence, engagement in goal-directed play when alone, and popularity with adults. Adolescent criterion measures were multi-informant composites of externalizing and internalizing behavior plus indicators of academic achievement, eating pathology, and substance use. ADHD and peer rejection predicted risk for all criterion measures except for substance use, which was predicted by ADHD only. ADHD and peer rejection predicted lower adolescent academic achievement controlling for childhood achievement, but they did not predict adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior after controlling for baseline levels of these constructs. Regarding buffers, self-perceived scholastic competence in childhood (with control of academic achievement) predicted resilient adolescent functioning. Contrary to hypothesis, goal-directed play in childhood was associated with poor adolescent outcomes. Buffers were not found to have differential effectiveness among girls with ADHD relative to comparison girls.

Keywords

ADHD Peer rejection Resilience Scholastic competence Goal-directed play Popularity with adults Girls 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Work on this research was supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grants R01 MH45064 and F31MH12838, and the Sheldon J. Korchin Prize at the University of California, Berkeley. We express our great appreciation to the girls and their families who participated in this project, to Elizabeth Owens and the many individuals who assisted with data collection and data management, and to Ann Kring and Carolyn Hofstetter for their consultation on this study. This article was based on a dissertation completed by the first author at the University of California, Berkeley.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991a). Manual for child behavior checklist and revised child behavior profile. Burlington, VT: University Associates in Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M. (1991b). Manual for teacher’s report form and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University Associates in Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T. M., McConaughy, S. H., & Howell, C. T. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 213–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen, J. P., Porter, M. R., McFarland, F. C., Marsh, P., & McElhaney, K. B. (2005). The two faces of adolescent’ success with peers: Adolescent popularity, social adaptation, and deviant behavior. Child Development, 76, 747–760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.—Text Revision). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  6. Arnold, L. E. (1996). Sex differences in ADHD: Conference summary. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 555–569.Google Scholar
  7. Barkley, R. A. (2002). ADHD: Long-term course, adult outcome, and comorbid disorders. In P. S. Jensen & J. R. Cooper (Eds.), Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: State of the science and best practices (pp. 4-1–4-12). Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.Google Scholar
  8. Biederman, J., Wilens, T. E., Mick, E., & Faraone, S. V. (1998). Does attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder impact the developmental course of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence? Biological Psychiatry, 44, 269–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blachman, D. R., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2002). Patterns of friendship among girls with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 625–640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buhs, E. S., & Ladd, G. W. (2001). Peer rejection as antecedent of young children’s school adjustment: An examination of mediating processes. Developmental Psychology, 37, 550–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Campbell, S. B., Shaw, D. S., & Gilliom, M. (2000). Early externalizing behavior problems: Toddlers and preschoolers at risk for later maladjustment. Development & Psychopathology, 12, 467–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carlson, C. L., Tamm, L., & Gaub, M. (1997). Gender differences in children with ADHD, ODD,and co-occurring ADHD/ODD identified in a school population. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1706–1714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chassin, L., Ritter, J., Trim, R. S., & King, K. M. (2003). Adolescent substance use disorders. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Child psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 199–232). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  14. Chen, W. J., Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., & Tsuang, M. T. (1994). Diagnostic accuracy of the Child Behavior Checklist scales for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A receiver-operating characteristic analysis. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 62, 1017–1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analyses for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Publications.Google Scholar
  16. Coie, J. D. (1990). Toward a theory of peer rejection. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 365–401). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1983). Continuities and changes in children’s social status: A five-year longitudinal study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 29, 261–282.Google Scholar
  18. Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Coppotelli, H. (1982). Dimensions and types of social status: A cross-age perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 557–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dishion, T. J. (1990). The peer context of troublesome child and adolescent behavior. In P. E. Leone (Ed.), Understanding troubled and troubling youth: Multiple perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Fahy, T., & Eisler, I. (1993). Impulsivity and Eating Disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 193–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Faul, F., & Erdfelder, E. (1992). GPOWER: A priori, post-hoc, and compromise power analyses for MS-DOS (computer program). Bonn, FRG: Bonn University, Department of Psychology.Google Scholar
  23. Garner, D. M. (1991). Eating disorder inventory (2nd ed.; EDI-2). Odessa, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  24. Garner, D. M., Olmstead, M. P., Bohr, Y., & Garfinkel, P. E. (1982). The Eating Attitudes Test: Psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychological Medicine, 12, 871–878.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Greene, R. W., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Sienna, M., & Garcia-Jetton, J. (1997). Adolescent outcome of boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and social disability: Results from a 4-year longitudinal follow-up study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 758–767.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Guay, F., Marsh, H. W., & Boivin, M. (2003). Academic self-concept and academic achievement: Developmental perspectives on their causal ordering. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 124–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early teacher-child relationships and the trajectory of children’s school outcomes through the eighth grade. Child Development, 72, 625–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harter, S. (1985). Manual for the self-perception profile for children. Unpublished manuscript, University of Denver.Google Scholar
  29. Harter, S., & Whitesell, N. R. (1996). Multiple pathways to self-reported depression and psychological adjustment among adolescents. Development & Psychopathology, 8, 761–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hinshaw, S. P. (1992). Academic underachievment, attention deficits, and aggression: Comorbidity and implications for intervention. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 60, 893–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hinshaw, S. P. (2002). Preadolescent girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: I. Background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 1086–1098.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hinshaw, S. P., & Blachman, D. R. (2005). Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder in girls. In D. Bell-Dolan, S. Foster, & E. J. Mash (Eds.), Behavioral and emotional problems in girls. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
  33. Hinshaw, S. P., Owens, E. B., Sami, N., & Fargeon, S. (2006). Prospective follow-up of girls with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder into adolescence: Evidence for continuing cross-domain impairment. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 74, 489–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hinshaw, S. P., & Simmel, C. (1994). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In M. Hersen, R. T. Ammerman, & L. A. Sisson (Eds.), Handbook of aggressive and destructive behavior in psychiatric patients. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  35. Holmbeck, G. N. (2002). Post-hoc probing of significant moderational and mediational effects in studies of pediatric populations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27, 87–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hoza, B., Gerdes, A. C., Mrug, S., Hinshaw, S. P., Bukowski, W. M., Gold, J. A., et al. (2005). Peer-assessed outcomes in the Multimodal Treatment Study of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 74–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hoza, B., Mrug, S., Gerdes, A. C., Bukowski, W. M., Kraemer, H. C., Wigal, T., et al. (2005). What aspects of peer relationships are impaired in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 73, 411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hymel, S., Vaillancourt, T., McDougall, P., & Renshaw, P. D. (2002). Peer acceptance and rejection in childhood. In P. K. Smith & C. H. Hart (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of childhood social development. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  39. Kovacs, M. (1992). Children’s depression inventory (CDI) manual. Toronto, CA: Multi-Health Systems Inc.Google Scholar
  40. Kupersmidt, J. B., Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1990). The role of poor peer relationships in the development of disorder. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 274–305). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Leung, K., & Lau, S. (1989). Effects of self-concept and perceived disapproval of delinquent behavior in school children. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 18, 345–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Magee, W. J., Eaton, W. W., Wittchern, H., McGonagle, K. A., & Kessler, R. C. (1996). Agoraphobia, simple phobia, and social phobia in the national comorbidity survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 159–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Mannuzza, S., & Klein, R. G. (1999). Adolescent and adult outcomes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders (pp. 279–294). New York: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  44. Mannuzza, S., Klein, R. G., Bessler, A., Malloy, P., & Hynes, M. (1997). Educational and occupational outcome of hyperactive boys grown up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1222–1227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Marshal, M. P., Molina, B. S. G., & Pelham, W. E. (2003). Childhood ADHD and adolescent substance use: An examination of deviant peer group affiliation as a risk factor. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17, 293–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56, 227–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McClelland, G. H., & Judd, C. M. (1993). Statistical difficulties of detecting interactions and moderator effects. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 376–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mikami, A. Y., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2003). Buffers of peer rejection among girls with and without ADHD: The role of popularity with adults and goal-directed solitary play. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 381–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Miller-Johnson, S., Coie, J. D., Maumary-Gremaud, A., Bierman, K. L., & Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2002). Peer rejection and aggression and early starter models of conduct disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 217–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Molina, B. S. G. (1995). Adolescent substance abuse interview. Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.Google Scholar
  51. Molina, B. S. G., & Pelham, W. E. (2003). Childhood predictors of adolescent substance use in a longitudinal study of children with ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 497–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Girgus, J. (1994). The emergence of gender differences in depression in adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 424–443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ollendick, T. H., Weist, M. D., Borden, M. C., & Greene, R. W. (1992). Sociometric status and academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment: A five-year longitudinal study. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 60, 80–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pajer, K. A. (1998). What happens to “bad” girls? A review of the adult outcomes of antisocial adolescent girls. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 862–870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children at risk? Psychological Bulletin, 102, 357–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Parker, J. G., Rubin, K. H., Price, J. M., & DeRosier, M. E. (1995). Peer relationships, child development, and adjustment: A developmental psychopathology perspective. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (Vol. 2, pp. 96–161.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  57. Pisecco, S., Wristers, K., Swank, P., Silva, P. A., & Baker, D. B. (2001). The effect of academic self-concept on ADHD and antisocial behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 450–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Qualter, P., & Munn, P. (2002). The separateness of social and emotional loneliness in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 233–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rierdan, J., Koff, E., & Stubbs, M. L. (1989). A longitudinal analysis of body image as a predictor of the onset and persistence of adolescent girls’ depression. Journal of Early Adolescence, 9, 454–466.Google Scholar
  60. Robins, L. N., & Price, R. K. (1991). Adult disorders predicted by childhood conduct problems: Results from the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Project. Psychiatry, 54, 116–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Roth, S., & Cohen, L. J. (1986). Approach, avoidance, and coping with stress. American Psychologist, 41, 813–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rubin, K. H., & Coplan, R. J. (1998). Social and nonsocial play in childhood: An individual difference perspective. In O. N. Saracho & B. Spodek (Eds.), Multiple perspectives on play in early childhood education (pp. 144–170). Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  63. Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Lucas, C. P., Dulcan, M. K., & Schwab-Stone, M. E. (2000). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV: Description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 28–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stice, E., Spangler, D., & Agras, W. S. (2001). Exposure to media-portrayed thin-ideal images adversely affects vulnerable girls: A longitudinal experiment. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 20, 270–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Stormshak, E. A., Bierman, K. L., Bruschi, C., Dodge, K. A., Coie, J. D., & Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1999). The relation between behavior problems and peer preference in different classroom contexts. Child Development, 70, 169–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Swanson, J. M. (1992). Assessment and treatment of ADD students. Irvine, CA: K.C. Press.Google Scholar
  67. Sweeting, H., & West, P. (2002). Gender differences in weight related concerns in early to late adolescence. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 56, 701–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tremblay, R. E. (2000). The development of aggressive behaviour during childhood: What have we learned in the past century? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24, 129–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wechsler, D. (1992). Manual for the wechsler individual achievement test. New York: Psychological Corporation/Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  70. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1992). Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Whalen, C. K., & Henker, B. (1992). The social profile of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Five fundamental facets. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 1, 395–410.Google Scholar
  72. Zimmerman, M. A., Bingenheimer, J. B., & Notaro, P. C. (2002). Natural mentors and adolescent resiliency: A study with urban youth. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 221–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations