Advertisement

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 242–253 | Cite as

Determinants of Multiple Informant Agreement on Child and Adolescent Behavior

Original Article

This study examined whether characteristics of behavioral items reported by parent and child are related to parent–child agreement. Data were collected from 20 judges rating 59 child behaviors on 11 dimensions hypothesized to affect parent–child agreement. Data from 675 parent–child dyads (85% female caregivers, 62% male children, aged 7–17) reporting on 59 child behaviors were used to examine agreement. Behavior characteristics accounted for 43% of variability in parent–child agreement. Three components, saliency to the parent, saliency to the child, and observability/willingness to report, contributed uniquely to prediction of agreement.

KEY WORDS:

behavior problems inter-rater reliability cross-informant agreement parent and child/adolescent report saliency 

Notes

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This research was funded by the U.S. Army Health Services Command (DA-DA10–89-C-0013) as a subcontract from the North Carolina Department of Human Resources/Division of Mental Health, Developmental Disabilities, and Substance Abuse Services. The author wishes to thank Dr. Leonard Bickman who provided access to this rich data set, Dr. Warren Lambert who provided ongoing statistical support, Meghan Pelletier for assisting in preparation of this paper, and the anonymous reviewers who offered numerous helpful suggestions.

REFERENCES

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Integrative guide to the 1991 CBCL, YSR, and TRF profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M., McConaughy, S. H., & Howell, C. T. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 213–232.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. R. (1990). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: W. H. FreemanGoogle Scholar
  4. Angold, A., Weissman, M. M., John, K., & Merikangas, K. R. (1987). Parent and child reports of depressive symptoms in children at low and high risk of depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 28, 901–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ardoin, S. P., & Martens, B. K. (2004). Training children to make accurate self-evaluations: Effects on behavior and the quality of self-ratings. Journal of Behavioral Education, 13, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartko J. J., & Carpenter, W. T. (1976). On the methods and theory of reliability. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 163, 307–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bem, D. J., & Allen, A. (1974). On predicting some of the people some of the time. Psychological Review, 81, 506–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berman, J. S., Read, S. J., & Kenny, D. A. (1983). Processing inconsistent social information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 1211–1224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernieri, F. J., Zuckerman, M., Koestner, R., & Rosenthal, R. (1994). Measuring person perception accuracy: Another look at self-other agreement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 367–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berry, K. J., & Mielke, P. W. (1988). A generalization of Cohen’s’ Kappa agreement measure to interval measurement and multiple raters. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48, 921–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bickman, L., Guthrie, P. R., Foster, E. M., Lambert, E. W., Summerfelt, W. T., Breda, C. S., et al. (1995). Managed care in mental health: The Fort Bragg Experiment. New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
  12. Cai, X., Kaiser, A. P., & Hancock, T. B. (2004). Mental health problems of adolescents as reported by their caregivers: A comparison of European, African, and Latino Americans. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, 32, 1–13.Google Scholar
  13. Cantor, N., & Mischel, W. (1979). Prototypicality and personality: Effects on free recall and personality impressions. Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 187–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chambers, W. J. (1985). The assessment of affective disorders in children and adolescents by semistructured interview: Test–retest reliability of the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present Episode Version. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 696–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Choudhury, M. S., Pimentel, S. S., & Kendall, P. C. (2003). Childhood anxiety disorders: Parent-child (dis)agreement using a structured interview for the DSM-IV. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 957–964Google Scholar
  16. Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  18. Comer, J. S., & Kendall, P. C. (2004). A symptom-level examination of parent–child agreement in the diagnosis of anxious youth. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 878–886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dadds, M. R., Perrin, S., & Yule, W. (1998). Social desirability and self-reported anxiety in children: An analysis of the RCMAS Lie Scale. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 311–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Edelbrock, C., Costello, A. J., Dulcan, M. K., Conover, N. C., & Kala, R. (1986). Parent–child agreement on child psychiatric symptoms assessed via structured interview. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 181–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., & Milberger, S. (1995). How reliable are maternal reports of their children's psychopathology? One-year recall of psychiatric diagnosis of ADHD children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1001–1008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Feiring C., & Lewis, M. (1993). Do mothers know their teenagers’ friends? Implications for individuation in early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 22, 337–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (1991). Social Cognition (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  24. Foley, D. L., Rutter, M., Angold, A., Pickles, A., Maes, H. M., Silberg, J. L., et al. (2005). Making sense of informant disagreement for overanxious disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19(2), 193–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frank, S. J., Van Egeren, L. A., Fortier, J. L., & Chase, P. (2000). Structural, relative, and absolute agreement between parents’ and adolescent inpatients’ reports of adolescent functional impairment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 395–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Funder, D. C. (1983). The consistency controversy and the accuracy of personality judgments. Journal of Personality, 51, 346–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gove, P. B. (Ed.). (1967). Webster's third new international dictionary. Springfield, MA: G. & C. Merriam Company.Google Scholar
  28. Grietens, H.; Onghena, P.; Prinzie, P., Gadeyne, E., Van Assche, V., Ghesquiere, P., et al. (2004). Comparison of mothers’, fathers’, and teachers’ reports on problem behavior in 5- to 6-year-old children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26, 137–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Herjanic B., & Reich, W. (1982). Development of a structured psychiatric interview for children: Agreement between child and parent on individual symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 307–324.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hodges, K., Cools, J., & McKnew, D. (1989). Test–retest reliability of a clinical research interview for children: The Child Assessment Schedule. Psychological Assessment, 1, 317–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hodges, K., Gordon, Y., & Lennon, M. P. (1990). Parent–child agreement on symptoms assessed via a clinical research interview for children: The Child Assessment Schedule (CAS). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 427–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hodges, K., Kline, J., Stern, L., Cytryn, L., & McKnew, D. (1982). The development of a child assessment interview for research and clinical use. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 173–189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Jaeschke, R., Guyatt, G., & Lijmer, J. (2002). Diagnostic tests. In G. H. Guyatt & D. Rennie (Eds.), Users’ guides to the medical literature (pp. 121–140). Chicago, IL: American Medical Association Press.Google Scholar
  34. Kammann, R., Smith, R., Martin, C., & McQueen, M. (1984). Low accuracy in judgments of others’ psychological well-being as seen from a phenomenological perspective. Journal of Personality, 52, 107–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kemper, T. S., Gerhardstein, R., Repper, K. K., & Kistner, J. A. (2003). Mother–child agreement on reports of internalizing symptoms among children referred for evaluation of ADHD. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 25, 239–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kenny, D. A., & DePaulo, B. M. (1993). Do people know how others view them? An empirical and theoretical account. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 145–161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Kenrick, D. T., & Stringfield, D. O. (1980). Personality traits and the eye of the beholder: Crossing some traditional philosophical boundaries in the search for consistency in all of the people. Psychological Review, 87, 88–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kraemer, H. C. (1982). Estimating false alarms and missed events from interobserver agreement: Comment on Kaye. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 749–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kramer, T. L., Phillips, S. D., Hargis, M. B., Miller, T. L., Burns, B. J., & Robbins, J. M. (2004). Disagreement between parent and adolescent reports of functional impairment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 248–259.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Lassiter, G. D., Geers, A. L., Handley, L. M., Weiland, P. E., & Munhall, P. J. (2002). Videotaped interrogations and confessions: A simple change in camera perspective alters verdicts in simulated trials. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 867–874.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Loeber, R., Green, S. M., Lahey, B. B., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1991). Differences and similarities between children, mothers, and teachers as informants on disruptive child behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19, 75–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Marsh, H. W., & Byrne, B. M. (1993). Do we see ourselves as others infer: A comparison of self-other agreement on multiple dimensions of self-concept from two continents? Australian Journal of Psychology, 45, 49–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Murphy, K. R., & Anhalt, R. L. (1992). Is halo error a property of the rater, ratees, or the specific behaviors observed? Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 494–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Murphy, K. R., & Balzer, W. K. (1986). Systematic distortions in memory-based behavior ratings and performance evaluations: Consequences for rating accuracy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 39–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ofir, C., Reddy, S. K., & Bechtel, G. G. (1987). Are semantic response scales equivalent? Multivariate Behavioral Research, 22, 21–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ossorio, P. G. (1966). Outline of behavior description. Boulder, CO: Linguistic Research Institute.Google Scholar
  47. Paunonen, S. V. (1989). Consensus in personality judgments: Moderating effects of target-rater acquaintanceship and behavior observability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 823–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pezdek, K., Whetsone, T., Reynolds, K., Askari, N., & Dougherty, T. (1989). Memory for real-world scenes. The role of consistency with schema expectation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 587–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Richters, J. E. (1992). Depressed mothers as informants about their children: A critical review of the evidence for distortion. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 485–499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Rogers, R. (2001). Handbook of diagnostic and structured interviewing. New York, NY: The Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  51. Sackett, D. L., Straus, S. E., Richardson, W. S., Rosenberg, W., & Haynes, R. B. (2000). Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM (2nd ed.) New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  52. Sanger, M. S., Maclean, W. E., & Van Slyke, D. A. (1992). Relation between maternal characteristics and child behavior ratings. Clinical Pediatrics, 31, 461–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shrout, P. E., Spitzer R. L., & Fleiss, J. L. (1987). Quantification of agreement in psychiatric diagnosis revisited. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 172–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Spitznagel, E., & Helzer, J. (1985). A proposed solution to the base rate problem in the Kappa statistic. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 725–728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Stewart, M., Jackson, D., Mannix, J., Wilkes, L., & Lines, K. (2004/2005). Child to mother violence: What does the literature tell us? Contemporary Nurse, 18, 199–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Sullins, E. S. (1989). Perceptual salience as a function of nonverbal expressiveness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15, 584–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tang, J. (2002). Predicting factors of parent and child agreement on ratings of child emotional and behavioral problems. Perspectives in Psychology, 5, 12–19.Google Scholar
  58. Tanofsky-Kraff, M., Yanovski, S. Z., & Yanovski, J. A. (2005) Comparison of child interview and parent reports of children's eating disordered behaviors. Eating Behaviors, 6, 95–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Treutler, C. M., & Epkins, C. C. (2003). Are discrepancies among child, mother, and father reports on children's behavior related to parents’ psychological symptoms and aspects of parent–child relationships? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 13–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Uebersax, J. S. (1988). Validity inferences from interobserver agreement. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 405–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Verhulst, F. C., & van der Ende, J. (1991). Assessment of child psychopathology: Relationships between different methods, different informants and clinical judgment of severity. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 84, 155–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Warshak, R. A., & Friedrich, W. N. (1999). Observers of childhood sexual behavior. Pediatrics, 103, 853–859.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Westmacott, R., & Moscovitch, M. (2003). The contribution of autobiographical significance to semantic memory. Memory and Cognition, 31, 761–774.Google Scholar
  64. Yeh, M., & Weisz, J. R. (2001). Why are we here at the clinic? Parent–child (dis)agreement on referral problems at outpatient treatment entry. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 1018–1025.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Youngstrom, E., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2000). Patterns and correlates of agreement between parent, teacher, and male adolescent ratings of externalizing and internalizing problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 1038–1050.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Youngstrom, E. A.; Findling, R. L., & Calabrese, J. R. (2004). Effects of adolescent manic symptoms on agreement between youth, parent, and teacher ratings of behavior problems. Journal of Affective Disorders, 82(Suppl. 1), S5–S16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Zwick, W. R., & Velicer, W. F. (1986). Comparison of five rules for determining the number of components to retain. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 432–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations