Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 69–85 | Cite as

Which Executive Functioning Deficits Are Associated With AD/HD, ODD/CD and Comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD?

  • Jaap Oosterlaan
  • Anouk Scheres
  • Joseph A. Sergeant
Original Article


This study investigated (1) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is associated with executive functioning (EF) deficits while controlling for oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), (2) whether ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits while controlling for AD/HD, and (3)~whether a combination of AD/HD and ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits (and the possibility that there is no association between EF deficits and AD/HD or ODD/CD in isolation). Subjects were 99~children ages 6–12 years. Three putative domains of EF were investigated using well-validated tests: verbal fluency, working memory, and planning. Independent of ODD/CD, AD/HD was associated with deficits in planning and working memory, but not in verbal fluency. Only teacher rated AD/HD, but not parent rated AD/HD, significantly contributed to the prediction of EF task performance. No EF deficits were associated with ODD/CD. The presence of comorbid AD/HD accounts for the EF deficits in children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD. These results suggest that EF deficits are unique to AD/HD and support the model proposed by R. A. Barkley (1997).

attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder oppositional defiant disorder conduct disorder executive functioning verbal fluency working memory planning 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Integrative guide for the 1991 CBCL/4-18 YSR, and TRF profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M., McConaughy, S. H., & Howell, C. T. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 213–232.Google Scholar
  3. Aronowitz, B., Liebowitz, M., Hollander, E., Fazzini, E., Durlach-Misteli, C., Frenkel, M., et al. (1994). Neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological findings in conduct disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 3, 245–249.Google Scholar
  4. Ardila, A., Pineda, D., & Rosselli, M. (2000). Correlation betweenintelligence test scores and executive function measures. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 15, 31–36.Google Scholar
  5. Aman, C. J., Roberts, R. J., & Pennington, B. F. (1998). A neuropsychological examination of the underlying deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Frontal lobe versus right parietal lobe theories. Developmental Psychology, 24, 956–969.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  7. Angold, A., Costello, E. J., & Erkanli, A. (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 57–87.Google Scholar
  8. Archibald, S. J., & Kerns, K. A. (1999). Identification and description of new tests of executive functioning in children. Child Neuropsychology, 5, 115–129.Google Scholar
  9. Baddeley, A. (1996). Exploring the central executive. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5–28.Google Scholar
  10. Baker, S. C., Rogers, R. D., Owen, A. M., Frith, C. D., Dolan, R. J., Frackowiak, R. S. J., et al. (1996). Neural systems engaged by planning: A PET study of the Tower of London task. Neuropsychologia, 34, 515–526.Google Scholar
  11. Barkley, R. A. (1996). Linkages between attention and executive functions. In G. R. Lyon & N. A. Krasnegor (Eds.), Attention, memory, and executive function (pp. 307–326). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  12. Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of AD/HD. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 65–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barkley, R. A., DuPaul, G. J., & Connor, D. F. (1999). Stimulants. In W. S. Werry & M. J. Aman (Eds.), Practitioner’s guide to psychoactive drugs for children and adolescents 2nd ed., pp. 213–247). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  14. Barkley, R. A., Grodzinsky, G., & DuPaul, G. J. (1992). Frontal lobe functions in attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity: A review and research report. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20, 163–188.Google Scholar
  15. Barkley, R. A., & Grodzinsky, G. M. (1994). Are tests of frontal lobe functions useful in the diagnosis of attention deficit disorders? The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 8, 121–139.Google Scholar
  16. Benton, A. L., & Hamsher, K. (1976). Multilingual aphasia examination. Iowa City: University of Iowa.Google Scholar
  17. Biederman, J., & Spencer, T. (1999). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) as a noradrenergic disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 1234–1242.Google Scholar
  18. Carlin, D., Bonerba, J., Phipps, M., Alexander, G., Shapiro, M., & Grafman, J. (2000). Planning impairments in frontal lobe dementia and frontal lobe lesion patients. Neuropsychologia, 38, 655–665.Google Scholar
  19. Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N., Marsh, W. L., Hamburger, S. D., Vaituzis, A. C., Dickstein, D. P., et al. (1996). Quantitative brain magneticresonance imaging in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 607–616.Google Scholar
  20. Castellanos, F. X., Lee, P. P., Sharp, W., Jeffries, N. O., Greenstein, D. K., Clasen, L. S., et al. (2002). Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American MedicalAssociation, 288, 1740–1748.Google Scholar
  21. Central Office for Statistics (2002). Statline databases: number of pupils in regular and special educational services [statistics]. Available at: Scholar
  22. Chhabildas, N., Pennington, B. F., & Willcutt, E. G. (2001). A comparison of the neuropsychological profiles of the DSM-IV subtypes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 52–540.Google Scholar
  23. Clark, C., Prior, M., & Kinsella, G. J. (2000). Do executive function deficits differentiate between adolescents with AD/HD and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder? A neuropsychological study using the six elements test and the Hayling sentence completion test. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 403–414.Google Scholar
  24. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  25. Cohen, M. J., Morgan, A. M., Vaughn, M., Riccio, C. A., & Hall, J. (1999). Verbal fluency in children: Developmental issues and differential validity in distinguishing children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and two subtypes of dyslexia. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 14, 433–443.Google Scholar
  26. Crinella, F. M., & Yu, J. (2000). Brain mechanisms and intelligence: Psychometric g and executive function. Intelligence, 27, 299–327.Google Scholar
  27. Culbertson, W. C., & Zillmer, E. A. (1998). The Tower of London: A standardized approach to assessing executive functioning in children. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 13, 285–301.Google Scholar
  28. Dagher, A., Owen, A. M., Boecker, H., & Brooks, D. J. (1999). Mapping the network for planning: A correlational PET activation study with the Tower of London task. Brain, 122, 1973–1987.Google Scholar
  29. Daigneault, S., & Braun, C. M. J. (1993). Working memory and the Self-Ordered Pointing Task: Further evidence of early prefrontal decline in normal aging. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 881–895.Google Scholar
  30. Denckla, M. B. (1996). Research on executive function in a neurodevelopmental context: Application of clinical measures. Developmental Neuropsychology, 12, 5–15.Google Scholar
  31. Déry, M., Toupin, J., Pauzé, R., Mercier, H., & Fortin, L. (1999). Neuropsychological characteristics of adolescents with conduct disorder: Association with attention-deficit-hyperactivity and aggression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 225–236.Google Scholar
  32. Duncan, J., Johnson, R., Swales, M., & Freer, C. (1997). Frontal lobe deficits after head injury: Unity and diversity of function. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 14, 713–741.Google Scholar
  33. Elliott, R., Frith, C. D., & Dolan, R. J. (1997). Differential neural response to positive and negative feedback in planning and guessing tasks. Neuropsychologia, 35, 1395–1404.Google Scholar
  34. Eslinger, P. J. (1996). Conceptualizing, describing, and measuring components of executive function. In G. R. Lyon & N. A. Krasnegor (Eds.), Attention, memory, and executive function (pp. 367–395). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  35. Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., Weber, W., & Russell, R. L. (1998). Psychiatric, neuropsychological, and psychosocial features of DSM-IV subtypes of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 185–193.Google Scholar
  36. Frith, C. D., Friston, K. J., Liddle, P. F., & Frackowiak, R. S. J. (1991). A PET study of word finding. Neuropsychologia, 29, 1137–1148.Google Scholar
  37. Gaillard, W. D., Hertz-Pannier, L., Mott, S. H., Barnett, A. S., LeBihan, D., & Theodore, W. H. (2000). Functional anatomy of cognitive development: fMRI of verbal fluency in children and adults.Neurology, 54, 180–185.Google Scholar
  38. Giancola, P. R., Mezzich, A. C., & Tarter, R. E. (1998). Executive cognitive functioning, temperament, and antisocial behavior in conduct-disordered adolescent females. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 629–641.Google Scholar
  39. Giancola, P. R., & Zeichner, A. (1994). Neuropsychological performance on tests of frontal-lobe functioning and aggressive behavior in men. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 832–835.Google Scholar
  40. Grodzinsky, G. M., & Diamond, R. (1992). Frontal lobe functioning in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Neuropsychology, 8, 427–445.Google Scholar
  41. Groth-Marnat, G. (1997). Handbook of psychological assessment 3rd ed. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  42. Haggerty, J. C., Nevid, J. S., & Moulton III, J. L. (1998). Anxiety and cognitive performance in adolescent women with disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54, 1017–1027.Google Scholar
  43. Hart, E. L., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., & Hanson, K. S. (1994). Criterion validity of informants in the diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders in children: A preliminary study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2, 410–414.Google Scholar
  44. Houghton, S., Douglas, G., West, J., Whiting, K., Wall, M., Langsford, S., et al. (1999). Differential patterns of executive function in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder according to gender and subtype. Journal of Child Neurology, 14, 801–805.Google Scholar
  45. Kalff, A. C., Hendriksen, J. G., Kroes, M., Vles, J. S., Steyaert, J., Feron, F. J., et al. (2002). Neurocognitive performance of 5- and 6-year-old children who met criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder at 18 months follow-up: Results from a prospective population study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 589–598.Google Scholar
  46. Kempton, A., Vance, A., Maruff, P., Luk, E., Costin, J., & Pantelis, C. (1999). Executive function and attention deficit hyperactivitydisorder: Stimulant medication and better executive function performance in children. Psychological Medicine, 28, 527–538.Google Scholar
  47. Klorman, R., Hazel-Fernandez, L. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Fletcher, J. M., Marchione, K. E., Holahan, J. M., et al. (1999). Executive functioning deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are independent of oppositional defiant or reading disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1148–1155.Google Scholar
  48. Kooijmans, R., Scheres, A., & Oosterlaan, J. (2000). Response inhibition and measures of psychopathology: A dimensional analysis. Child Neuropsychology, 6, 175–184.Google Scholar
  49. Krikorian, R., Bartok, J., & Gay, N. (1994). Tower of London: A standard method and developmental data. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 16, 840–850.Google Scholar
  50. Lau, M. A., Pihl, R. O., & Peterson, J. B. (1995). Provocation, acute alcohol intoxication, cognitive performance, and aggression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 150–155.Google Scholar
  51. Levin, H. S., Culhane, K. A., Mendelsohn, D., Lilly, M. A., Bruce, D., Fletcher, J. M., et al. (Eds.) (1993). Cognition in relation to magnetic resonance imaging in head-injured children and adolescents (Vol. 50).Google Scholar
  52. Levin, H. S., Mendelsohnm, D., Lilly, M. A., Fletcher, J. M., Culhane, K. A., Chapman, S. B., et al. (1994). Tower of London performance in relation to magnetic resonance imaging following closed head injury in children. Neuropsychology, 8, 171–179.Google Scholar
  53. Lezak, M. D. (1995). Neuropsychological assessment 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Lockwood, K. A., Marcotte, A. C., & Stern, C. (2001). Differentiation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtypes: Application of a neuropsychological model of attention. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23, 317–330.Google Scholar
  55. Loeber, R., Green, S. M., & Lahey, B. B. (1990). Mental health professionals’ perception of the utility of children, mothers, and teachers as informants on childhood psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 2, 136–143.Google Scholar
  56. Loeber, R., Green, S. M., Lahey, B. B., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1989). Optimal informants on childhood disruptive behaviors. Development and Psychopatholology, 1, 317–337.Google Scholar
  57. Loeber, R., Green, S. M., Lahey, B. B., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1991). Differences and similarities between children, mothers, and teachers as informants on disruptive child behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1, 75–95.Google Scholar
  58. Lynam, D. R. (1998). Early identification of the fledgling psychopath: Locating the psychopathic child in the current nomenclature. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 566–575.Google Scholar
  59. MacLeod, D., & Prior, M. (1996). Attention deficits in adolescents with AD/HD and other clinical groups. Child Neuropsychology, 2, 1–10.Google Scholar
  60. Mahone, E. M., Koth, C. W., Cutting, L., Singer, H. S., & Denckla, M. B. (2001). Executive function in fluency and recall measures among children with Tourette syndrome or AD/HD. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 7, 102–111.Google Scholar
  61. Milich, R., Balentine, A. C., & Lynam, D. R. (2001). AD/HD combined type and AD/HD predominantly inattentive type are distinct and unrelated disorders. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 8, 463–488.Google Scholar
  62. Miller, E. (1984). Verbal fluency as a function of a measure of verbal intelligence and in relation to different types of cerebral pathology. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 23, 53–57.Google Scholar
  63. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). The neuropsychology of conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 135–151.Google Scholar
  64. Moffitt, T. E., & Henry, B. (1989). Neuropsychological assessment of executive functions in self-reported delinquents. Developmental Psychopathology, 1, 105–118.Google Scholar
  65. Moffitt, T. E., Lynam, D. R., & Silva, P. A. (1994). Neuropsychological tests predicting persistent male delinquency. Criminology, 32, 277–300.Google Scholar
  66. Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1988). Self-reported delinquency, neuropsychological deficit, and history of attention deficit disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 553–569.Google Scholar
  67. Morgan, A. B., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2000). A meta-analytic review of the relation between antisocial behavior and neuropsychological measures of executive function. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 113–136.Google Scholar
  68. Morris, R. G., Ahmed, S., Syed, G. M., & Toone, B. (1993). Neural correlates of planning ability: Frontal-lobe activation during the Tower of London test. Neuropsychologia, 31, 1367–1378.Google Scholar
  69. Nigg, J. T. (2001). Is ADHD a disinhibitory disorder? Psychological Bulletin, 127, 571–598.Google Scholar
  70. Nigg, J. T., Blaskey, L. G., Huang-Pollock, C. L., & Rappley, M. D. (2002). Neuropsychological executive functions and DSM-IV AD/HD subtypes. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 59–66.Google Scholar
  71. Nigg, J. T., Quamma, J. P., Greenberg, M. T., & Kusche, C. A. (1999). A two-year longitudinal study of neuropsychological and cognitive performance in relation to behavioral problems and competencies in elementary school children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 51–63.Google Scholar
  72. Offord, D. R., Boyle, M. H., Racine, Y., Szatmari, P., Fleming, J. E., Sanford, M., et al. (1996). Integrating assessment data from multiple informants. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 8, 1078–1085.Google Scholar
  73. Oosterlaan, J., Logan, G. D., & Sergeant, J. A. (1998). Response inhibition in AD/HD, CD, comorbid AD/HD$+$CD, anxious and normal children: A meta-analysis of studies with the stop task. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 411–426.Google Scholar
  74. Oosterlaan, J., Prins, P. J. M., & Sergeant, J. A. (1992). Beoordelings-schaal voor leerkrachten [IOWA Conners Teacher Rating Scale]. Amsterdam: Faculty of Psychology, University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  75. Oosterlaan, J., Scheres, A., Antrop, I., Roeyers, H., & Sergeant, J. A. (2000). Vragenlijst voor gedragsproblemen bij kinderen: Handleiding [Manual for the disruptive behavior disorders rating scale]. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  76. Oosterlaan, J., & Sergeant, J. A. (1998a). Response inhibition and response re-engagement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disruptive, anxious and normal children. Behavioural Brain Research, 94, 33–43.Google Scholar
  77. Oosterlaan, J., & Sergeant, J. A. (1998b). Response inhibition and the effects of reward and response cost: A comparison between ADHD, disruptive, anxious, and normal children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 161–174.Google Scholar
  78. Owen, A. M., Downes, J. J., Sahakian, B. J., Polkey, C. E., & Robbins, T. W. (1990). Planning and spatial working memory following frontal lobe lesions in man. Neuropsychologia, 28, 1021–1034.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Parks, R. W., Loewestein, D. A., Dodrill, K. L., Barker, W. W., Yoshii, F., Chang, J. Y., et al. (1988). Cerebral metabolic effects of a verbal fluency test: A PET scan study. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 10, 565–575.Google Scholar
  80. Pelham, W. E., Gnagy, E. M., Greenslade, K. E., & Milich, R. (1992). Teacher ratings of DSM-III-R symptoms for disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 21, 210–218.Google Scholar
  81. Pelham, W. E., Milich, R., Murphy, D. A., & Murphy, H. A. (1989). Normative data on the IOWA Conners Teacher Rating Scale. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18, 259–262.Google Scholar
  82. Phelps, E. A., Hyder, F., Blamire, A. M., & Shulman, R. G. (1997). FMRI of the prefrontal cortex during overt verbal fluency. Neuroreport, 8, 561–565.Google Scholar
  83. Pennington, B. F., & Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions anddevelopmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 51–87.Google Scholar
  84. Perugini, E. M., Harvey, E. A., Lovejoy, D. W., Sandstrom, K., & Webb, A. H. (2000). The predictive power of combined neuropsychological measures for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Child Neuropsychology, 6, 101–114.Google Scholar
  85. Petrides, M., Alivisatos, B., Evans, A. C., & Meyer, E. (1993). Dissociation of human mid-dorsolateral from posterior dorsolateral frontal cortex in memory processing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 90, 873–877.Google Scholar
  86. Petrides, M., & Milner, B. (1982). Deficits on self-ordered tasks after frontal- and temporal-lobe lesions in man. Neuropsychologia, 20, 249–262.Google Scholar
  87. Pollux, P. M. J., Wester, A., & De Haan, E. H. F. (1995). Random generation deficit in alcoholic Korsakoff patients. Neuropsychologia, 33, 125–129.Google Scholar
  88. Power, T. J., Andrews, T. J., Eiraldi, R. B., Doherty, B. J., Ikeda, M. J.,DuPaul, G. J., et al. (1998). Evaluating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using multiple informants: The incremental utility of combining teacher with parent reports. Psychological Assessment, 3, 250–260.Google Scholar
  89. Pujol, J., Vendrell, P., Deus, J., Kulisevsky, J., Marti-Vilalta, J. L., Garcia, C., et al. (1996). Frontal lobe activation during word generation studied by functional MRI. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 93, 403–410.Google Scholar
  90. Reader, M. J., Harris, E. L., Schuerholz, L. J., & Denckla, M. B. (1994). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and executive dysfunction. Developmental Neuropsychology, 10, 493–512.Google Scholar
  91. Rezai, K., Andreasen, N. C., Alliger, R., Cohen, G., Swayze, V., & O’Leary, D. S. (1993). The neuropsychology of the prefrontal cortex. Archives of Neurology, 50, 636–642.Google Scholar
  92. Riccio, C. A., Hynd, G. W., Cohen, M., & Gonzalez, J. J. (1993). Neurological basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Exceptional Children, 60, 118–124.Google Scholar
  93. Riccio, C. A., Hall, J., Morgan, A., Hynd, G. W., Gonzalez, J. J., & Marshall, R. M. (1994). Executive function and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Relationship with behavioral ratings and cognitive ability. Developmental Neuropsychology, 10, 215–229.Google Scholar
  94. Rowe, J. B., Owen, A. M., Johnsrude, I. S., & Passingham, R. E. (2001). Imaging the mental components of a planning task. Neuropsychologia, 39, 315–327.Google Scholar
  95. Schachar, R., Mota, V. L., Logan, G. D., Tannock, R., & Klim, P. (2000). Confirmation of an inhibitory control deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal ChildPsychology, 28, 227–235.Google Scholar
  96. Scheres, A., Oosterlaan, J., & Sergeant, J. A. (2003). The effect of methylphenidate on three forms of response inhibition in boys with AD/HD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 105–120.Google Scholar
  97. Schuerholz, L. J., Baumgardner, T. L., Singer, H. S., Reis, A. L., & Denckla, M. B. (1996). Neuropsychological status of children with Tourette’s syndrome with an without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neurology, 46, 958–965.Google Scholar
  98. Schlosser, R., Hutchinson, M., Joseffer, S., Rusinek, H., Saarimaki, A., Stevenson, J., et al. (1998). Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity in a verbal fluency task. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 64, 492–498.Google Scholar
  99. Séguin, J. R., Boulerice, B., Harden, P. W., Tremblay, R. E., & Pihl, R. O. (1999). Executive functions and physical aggression after controlling for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, general memory, and IQ. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 1197–1208.Google Scholar
  100. Séguin, J. R., Pihl, R. O., Harden, P. W., Tremblay, R. E., & Boulerice, B. (1995). Cognitive and neuropsychological characteristics of physically aggressive boys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 614–624.Google Scholar
  101. Sergeant, J. A., Geurts, H., & Oosterlaan, J. (2002). How specific is a deficit of executive functioning for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Behavioural Brain Research, 130, 3–28.Google Scholar
  102. Sergeant, J. A., Oosterlaan, J., & van der Meere, J. J. (1999). Information processing and energetic factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders (pp. 75–104). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Shallice, T. (1982). Specific impairments of planning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 298, 199–209.Google Scholar
  104. Shallice, T., & Burgess, P. W. (1991). Deficits in strategy application following frontal lobe damage in man. Brain, 114, 727–741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Shallice, T., Marzocchi, G. M., Coser, S., Del Savio, M., Meuter, R. F., & Rumiati, R. I. (2002). Executive function profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Neuropsychology, 21, 43–71.Google Scholar
  106. Shaywitz, B. A., Fletcher, J. M., Pugh, K. R., Klorman, R., & Shaywitz, S. E. (1999). Progress in imaging attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Reviews, 5, 185–190.Google Scholar
  107. Shue, K. L., & Douglas, V. I. (1992). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the frontal lobe syndrome. Brain and Cognition, 20, 104–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Speltz, M. L., DeKlyen, M., Calderon, R. Greenberg, M. T., & Fisher, P. A. (1999). Neuropsychological characteristics and test behaviors of boys with early onset conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 315–325.Google Scholar
  109. Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643–662.Google Scholar
  110. Toupin, J., Déry, M., Pauzé, R., Mercier, H., & Fortin, L. (2000). Cognitive and familial contributions to conduct disorder in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 333–344.Google Scholar
  111. Verhulst, F. C., Van den Ende, J., & Koot, H. M. (1996a). Handleiding voor de CBCL (4–18) [Manual for the CBCL (4–18)]. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Afdeling kinder- en jeugdpsychiatrie, Sophia kinderziekenhuis/Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam/Erasmus Universiteit.Google Scholar
  112. Verhulst, F. C., Van den Ende, J., & Koot, H. M. (1996b).Handleiding voor de TRF (4–18) [Manual for the TRF (4–18)]. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Afdeling kinder- en jeugdpsychiatrie, Sophia kinderziekenhuis/Academisch Ziekenhuis Rotterdam/Erasmus Universiteit.Google Scholar
  113. Welsh, M. C., & Pennington, B. F. (1988). Assessing frontal lobe functioning in children: Views from developmental psychology. Development Neuropsychology, 4, 199–230.Google Scholar
  114. Welsh, M. C., Pennington, B. F., & Groisser, D. B. (1991). A normative-developmental study of executive function: A window of prefrontal function in children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 7, 131–149.Google Scholar
  115. Wiers, R. W., Gunning, W. B., & Sergeant, J. A. (1998). Is a mild deficit in executive functions in boys related to childhood AD/HD or to parental multigenerational alcoholism? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 415–430.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaap Oosterlaan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anouk Scheres
    • 1
  • Joseph A. Sergeant
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical NeuropsychologyVrije Universiteit AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Clinical NeuropsychologyVrije Universiteit AmsterdamBT AmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations