Advertisement

Electrochemical formation of silver nanoparticles and their applications in the reduction and detection of nitrates at neutral pH

  • Catherine M. Fox
  • Carmel B. BreslinEmail author
Research Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Sensors

Abstract

A glassy carbon electrode modified with silver nanoparticles was employed as a nitrate sensor to give a calibration curve with a sensitivity of 2.6 μA μM−1 cm−2 and a LOD of 4.1 μM NO3 at a neutral pH. The calibration curve was generated using rotating disc voltammetry coupled with constant potential amperometry, giving efficient diffusion of the nitrate to the surface. Reasonably good selectivity for nitrate was observed in the presence of nitrite, chloride and phosphate anions. The nitrate diffusion coefficient was estimated as 1.41 × 10−5 to 1.73 × 10−5 cm2 s−1 using a combination of cyclic voltammetry and rotating disc voltammetry, while the rate constant for the nitrate reduction reaction was estimated as 0.11 cm s−1. Some deviations from the Randles–Sevick and Levich equations were seen at higher scan rates, consistent with the slow kinetics and nitrate adsorption. While stable silver nanoparticles were electrochemically formed in the solution phase and incorporated within a hydrogel matrix, the best approach in forming the nitrate sensor was the direct electrodeposition of silver nanoparticles at glassy carbon at − 0.50 V versus Ag|Ag+ following a 60-min seeding period at the open-circuit potential.

Graphic abstract

Keywords

Silver nanoparticles Nitrate sensor Nitrate reduction Electrochemical synthesis Nitrite Hydrogel 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research work was funded by the Irish Research Council, Ireland.

References

  1. 1.
    Weigelt A, Bol R, Bardgett RD (2005) Preferential uptake of soil nitrogen forms by grassland plant species. Oecologia 142:627–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    van Kessel MAHJ, Speth DR, Albertsen M, Nielsen PH, Op den Camp HJM, Kartal B, Jetten MSM, Lucker S (2015) Complete nitrification by a single microorganism. Nature 528:555–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tsikas D (2007) Analysis of nitrite and nitrate in biological fluids by assays based on the Griess reaction: appraisal of the Griess reaction in the L-arginine/nitric oxide area of research. J Chromatogr B 851:51–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burakham R, Oshima M, Grudpan K, Motomizu S (2004) Simple flow-injection system for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in water samples. Talanta 64:1259–1265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Helmke SM, Duncan MW (2007) Measurement of the NO metabolites, nitrite and nitrate, in human biological fluids by GC–MS. J Chromatogr B 851:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jobgen WS, Jobgen SC, Li H, Meininger CJ, Wu G (2007) Analysis of nitrite and nitrate in biological samples using high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B 851:71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Icardo MC, Mateo JVG, Calatayud JM (2001) Determination of nitrite by inhibition of the chemiluminescence of acriflavine in a flow-injection assembly. Analyst 126:1423–1427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Miyado T, Tanaka Y, Nagai H, Takeda S, Saito K, Fukushi K, Yoshida Y, Wakida S-i, Niki E (2004) Simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite in biological fluids by capillary electrophoresis and preliminary study on their determination by microchip capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A 1051:185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhan X-Q, Li D-H, Zheng H, Xu J-G (2001) A sensitive fluorimetric method for the determination of nitrite and nitrate in seawater by a novel red-region fluorescence dye. Anal Lett 34:2761–2770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Manea F, Remes A, Radovan C, Pode R, Picken S, Schoonman J (2010) Simultaneous electrochemical determination of nitrate and nitrite in aqueous solution using Ag-doped zeolite-expanded graphite-epoxy electrode. Talanta 83:66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Badea M, Amine A, Palleschi G, Moscone D, Volpe G, Curulli A (2001) New electrochemical sensors for detection of nitrites and nitrates. J Electroanal Chem 509:66–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carpenter NG, Pletcher D (1995) Amperometric method for the determination of nitrate in water. Anal Chim Acta 317:287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shariar SM, Hinoue T (2010) Simultaneous voltammetric determination of nitrate and nitrite ions using a copper electrode pretreated by dissolution/redeposition. Anal Sci 26:1173–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Davis J, Moorcroft MJ, Wilkins SJ, Compton RG, Cardosi MF (2000) Electrochemical detection of nitrate and nitrite at a copper modified electrode. Analyst 125:737–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Reyter D, Belanger D, Roue L (2008) Study of the electroreduction of nitrate on copper in alkaline solution. Electrochim Acta 53:5977–5984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fedurco M, Kedzierzawski P, Augustynski J (1999) Effect of multivalent cations upon reduction of nitrate ions at the Ag electrode. J Electrochem Soc 146(1999):2569–2572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Manzo-Robledo A, Levy-Clement C, Alonso-Vante N (2014) The interplay between hydrogen evolution reaction and nitrate reduction on boron-doped diamond in aqueous solution: the effect of alkali cations. Electrochim Acta 117:420–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang Q-H, Yu L-J, Liu Y, Lin L, Lu R-g, Zhu J-p, He L, Lu Z-L (2017) Methods for the detection and determination of nitrite and nitrate: a review. Talanta 165:709–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Campbell FW, Compton RG (2010) The use of nanoparticles in electroanalysis: an updated review. Anal Bioanal Chem 396:241–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Branagan D, Breslin CB (2019) Electrochemical detection of glucose at physiological pH using gold nanoparticles deposited on carbon nanotubes. Sens Actuators B 282:490–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Frattini A, Pellegri N, Nicastro D, de Sanctis O (2005) Effect of amine groups in the synthesis of Ag nanoparticles using aminosilanes. Mater Chem Phys 94:148–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sahoo PK, Kamal SSK, Shankar B, Sreedhar B, Durai L (2012) Facile chemical synthesis of nano-silver powders for printable electronics applications. J Exp Nanosci 7:520–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhad HRLZ, Lai RY (2015) Comparison of nanostructured silver-modified and carbon ultramicrelectrodes for electrochemical detection of nitrate. Anal Chim Acta 892:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jiang J, Zhang L, Shanbhag V (2014) Improving electrochemical sensitivity of silver electrodes for nitrate detection in neutral and bas media through surface nanostructuration. J Electrochem Soc 161:B3028–B3033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Taguchi S, Feliu JM (2008) Kinetic study of nitrate reduction on Pt(110) electrode in perchloric acid solution. Electrochim Acta 53:3626–3634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yang J, Duca M, Schouten KJP, Koper MTM (2011) Formation of volatile products during nitrate reduction on a Sn-modified Pt electrode in acid solution. J Electroanal Chem 662:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liang J, Zheng Y, Liu Z (2016) Nanowire-based Cu electrode as electrochemical sensor for detection of nitrate in water. Sens Actuators B 232:336–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yin B, Ma H, Wang S, Chen S (2003) Electrochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles under protection of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). J Phys Chem B 107:8898–8904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kim JH, Kim CK, Won J, Kang YS (2005) Role of anions for the reduction behavior of silver ions in polymer/silver salt complex membranes. J Membr Sci 250:207–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yildiz G, Çatalgil-Giz H, Kadirgan F (2000) Electrochemically prepared acrylamide/N, N′-methylene bisacrylamide gels. J Appl Electrochem 30:71–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Singh A (2011) Synthesis and applications of polyacrylamide gels catalyzed by silver nitrate. J Appl Polym Sci 119:1084–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rand DAJ, Woods R (1975) Determination of real surface area of palladium electrodes, electrochemical oxidation of thin palladium films on gold. Comments. Anal Chem 47:1481–1483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Motheo AJ, Machado SAS, Van Kampen MH, Santos JR Jr (1993) Electrochemical determination of roughness of silver electrode surface. J Braz Chem Soc 4:122–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tang Y, Furtak TE (1991) Study of underpotential deposition of metals using the quartz crystal microbalance. Electrochim Acta 36:1873–1877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hafezi B, Majidi MR (2013) A sensitive and fast electrochemical sensor based on copper nanostructures for nitrate determination in foodstuffs and mineral water. Anal Methods 5:3552–3556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wang Y, Qu J, Wu R, Lei P (2006) The electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate in water on Pd/Sn-modified activated carbon fiber electrode. Water Res 40:1224–1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Aouina N, Cachet H, Debiemme-Chouvy C, Tran TTM (2010) Insight into the electroreduction of nitrate ions at a copper electrode, in neutral solution, after determination of their diffusion coefficient by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrochim Acta 55:7341–7345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gartia MR, Braunschweig B, Chang T-W, Moinzadeh P, Minsker BS, Agha G, Wieckowski A, Keefer LL, Liu GL (2012) The microelectronic wireless nitrate sensor network for environmental water monitoring. J Environ Monit 14:3068–3075CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMaynooth UniversityMaynoothIreland

Personalised recommendations