Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 229–239 | Cite as

A nitric oxide sensor fabricated through e-jet printing towards use in bioelectronics interfaces

  • Ryan T. MyersEmail author
  • Joseph Ayers
Research Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Sensors


We have developed a methodology for electrohydrodynamic printing of a nitric oxide (NO) sensor. The primary features of this amperometric methodology include the printing of carbon and metallic-based inks, the conversion of Ag to Ag:AgCl as a reference electrode, and the deposition of a nitric oxide selective layer on the working electrode, followed by an encapsulation to define the working area. The efficacy and enhancements of multiple printed layers has been examined. Multiple working electrode chemistries and combinations are presented, including the use of silver, graphene, NiTsPc, and gold in various combinations. Selectivity for NO was accomplished via a Nafion® layer on the working electrode, effectively blocking interference from NO2 and NO3 at relatively high concentrations. The resultant flexible, thin film nitric oxide sensor is sensitive enough to monitor macrophage depolarization events without the need for additional micropipette or FRET-based electrochemical sensors. We demonstrate a valuable research tool that will have a high impact on the emerging field of synthetic biology by providing the capability to interface-engineered cellular sensors to microelectronics.

Graphical abstract


Nitric oxide Electrohydrodynamic jet e-jet 3D printing Electrochemistry Bioelectronics 



Supported by ONR MURI # N000141110725.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no financial and/or personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BioengineeringNortheastern UniversityNahantUSA
  2. 2.Department of Marine and Environmental SciencesNortheastern UniversityNahantUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiologyNortheastern UniversityNahantUSA
  4. 4.Marine Science CenterNortheastern UniversityNahantUSA

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