Effect of supercapacitors directly hybridized with PEMFC on the component contribution and the performance of the system

  • D. Arora
  • K. Gérardin
  • S. Raël
  • C. Bonnet
  • F. Lapicque
Research Article
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

Hybridization of a fuel cell (FC) with energy storage systems such as supercapacitors (SC) or batteries can make the fuel cell withstand the sudden fluctuations of the current. Moreover, direct hybridization of a FC with SCs (i.e. without power converters) has further proved out to be a better solution than the indirect mode (i.e. with power converters), in addition without inducing further ageing of the cell in non-steady operations. The present investigation was aimed at comparing the performance of the system in terms of yield and the component contributions of the fuel cell and the supercapacitor in power conversion on increasing the capacity of energy storage. A single 100 cm2 cell was directly hybridized to one or three 3000 F SCs in standard fuel cell dynamic load cycling operation, simulating the energy demand in urban transport with current varying in the range 0–100 A. Upon comparing the hydrogen supply for the two configurations (1 or 3 SC), increasing the SC number decreased the hydrogen amount required in a cycle by approximately 5%. This also enhanced the yield of the fuel cell and the hybrid source by 10 and 16% respectively. Moreover, increasing the SCs capacity reduces the power supplied by the FC in periods with high energy demand in cycling tests.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Direct hybridization PEMFC Supercapacitors Hydrogen consumption Fuel cell dynamic load cycling 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported partly by the French PIA project «Lorraine Université d’Excellence», reference ANR-15-IDEX-04-LUE for the PhD Grant allocated to D. Arora.

References

  1. 1.
    Tie SF, Tan C-W (2013) A review of energy sources and energy management system in electric vehicles. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 20:82–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Janssen LJJ (2007) Hydrogen fuel cells for cars and buses. J Appl Electrochem 37:1383–1387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Murphy OJ, Cisar A, Clarke E (1998) Low-cost light weight high power density PEM fuel cell stack. Electrochimica Acta 43:3829–3840.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10800-007-9347-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pukrushpan JT (2004) Control of fuel cell power systems principles, modeling. Springer, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yuan XZ, Wang H (2008) PEM fuel cell fundamentals. In: Zhang J (ed) PEM fuel cell electrocatalysts and catalyst layers. Springer, London, pp 1–87Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ramani VK, Cooper K, Fenton JM, Kunz HR (2017) Polymer electrolyte fuel cells. In: Breitkopf C, Swider-Lyons K (eds) Springer handbook of electrochemical energy. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wahdame B, Girardot L, Hissel D, Harel F, Francois X, Candusso D et al (2008) Impact of power converter current ripple on the durability of a fuel cell stack. In: Proceedings of IEEE international symposium on industrial electronics, pp 1495–1500Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    San Martín I, Ursúa A, Sanchis P (2013) Integration of fuel cells and supercapacitors in electrical microgrids: analysis, modelling and experimental validation. Int J Hydrog Energy 38:11655–11671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thounthong P, Chunkag V, Sethakul P, Davat B, Hinaje M (2009) Comparative study of fuel-cell vehicle hybridization with battery or supercapacitor storage device. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 58:3892–3904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ahmed OA, Bleijs JAM (2015) An overview of DC–DC converter topologies for fuel cell-ultracapacitor hybrid distribution system. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 42:609–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Morin B, Van Laethem D, Turpin C, Rallières O, Astier S, Jaafar A et al (2014) Direct hybridization fuel cell: ultracapacitors. Fuel Cells 14:500–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wu B, Parkes MA, Yufit V, De Benedetti L, Veismann S, Wirsching C et al (2014) Design and testing of a 9.5 kWe proton exchange membrane fuel cell–supercapacitor passive hybrid system. Int J Hydrog Energy 39:7885–7896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rodatz P, Paganelli G, Sciarretta A, Guzzella L (2005) Optimal power management of an experimental fuel cell/supercapacitor-powered hybrid vehicle. Control Eng Pract 13:41–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wu B, Yufit V, Campbell J, Offer GJ, Martinez-Botas RF, Brandon NP (2013) Simulated and experimental validation of a fuel cell-supercapacitor passive hybrid system for electric vehicles. In: Proceedings of IET hybrid and electric vehicles conference 2013 (HEVC 2013), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gerardin K, Raël S, Bonnet C, Arora D, Lapicque F (2018) Direct coupling of PEM fuel cell to supercapacitors for higher durability and better energy management. Fuel Cells.  https://doi.org/10.1002/fuce.201700041 Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hinaje M, Raël S, Caron J-P, Davat B (2012) An innovating application of PEM fuel cell: current source controlled by hydrogen supply. Int J Hydrog Energy 37:12481–12488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bonnet C, Lapicque F, Belhadj M, Gerardin K, Raël S, Hinaje M (2017) Can PEM fuel cells experience appreciable degradation at short circuit? Fuel Cells 17:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tsotridis G, Pilenga A, De Marco G, Malkow T (2015) EU harmonised test protocols for PEMFC MEA testing in single cell configuration for automotive applications. European Commission, Joint Research Centre Publications Office, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Arora
    • 1
    • 2
  • K. Gérardin
    • 1
  • S. Raël
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. Bonnet
    • 1
  • F. Lapicque
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Reactions and Chemical EngineeringCNRS – University Lorraine, ENSICNancyFrance
  2. 2.Group of Research in Electrical Engineering of Nancy (GREEN)University LorraineVandœuvre-lès-NancyFrance

Personalised recommendations