Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 293–300 | Cite as

Electrochemical detection of 14 common munitions constituents

Research Article
  • 223 Downloads

Abstract

Electrochemical detections of 14 munitions constituents (MCs) listed on the Environmental Protection Agency hazardous waste list were examined using square wave voltammetry. Of the MCs that showed peak resolution in the scanned range, the reduction potential, limit of detection and limit of quantitation are reported here. The MCs tested are in three groups: nitrobenzenes, nitrotoluenes, and other nitro-aromatics: tetryl, HMX, and RDX. There was a correlation between peak resolution and the number of nitro groups for the nitrobenzenes and nitrotoluenes. The nitro group distance from the methyl for the nitrotoluenes with two nitro groups showed some correlation to the ability to detect as well. Some mixture experiments were conducted in which MCs with three and two nitro groups were detected simultaneously. While tetryl readily displayed two peaks, RDX and HMX did not show such clear peak resolution.

Keywords

Electrochemical detection Munitions constituents Square wave voltammetry 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, Mississippi Contract Number W912HZ-06-C-0034. The following cadets and former cadets of the US Military Academy and former student of Columbia University are gratefully recognized for their lab work on this project: Greg Walker, Aaron Devig, Henry Harpen, Gordon Shu, Jeffery Chin, Seth Johnson, Erik Moore, Branko Kovacevic, Nathan Held, Lauren Ng, Aaron Beyea, Harrison Heath, Zach Bowers, and Brian Albert.

References

  1. 1.
    U.S.Government (1998) Method 8330A nitroaromatics and nitramines by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Revision 1 edn. U.S. GovernmentGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    MacMillan DK, Spichal DE (2005) A review of field technologies for long-term monitoring of ordnance-related compounds in groundwater. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research and Development CenterGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Leeson A (2007) Improved Understanding of the Impact of Environmental Parameters and Sampling Methods on Measured Groundwater Contaminant Concentrations Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) Environmental Restoration (ER) Focus AreaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li M, Li Y-T, Li D-W, Long Y-T (2012) Recent developments and applications of screen-printed electrodes in environmental assays—a review. Analytica Chimica Acta 734(0):31–44. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2012.05.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    United States Department of Defense On line posting www.defenselink/brac [7 June 2006] (2006) U.S. Government. www.defenselink.mil/brac
  6. 6.
    Ghent DB (2007) Electrolytic alkaline hydrolysis for in situ decomposition of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater. Northeastern University, BostonGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Environmental Protection Agency On line posting www.epa.gov/docs/fedrgstr/EPA-WASTE/1997/February/Day-12/f3218.htm [7 June 2006] (2006)
  8. 8.
    Unknown (1998) Method 8330A nitroaromatics and nitramines by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Revision 1 edn. US GovernmentGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gustavo Gonzalez A, Angeles Herrador M (2007) A practical guide to analytical method validation, including measurement uncertainty and accuracy profiles. Trends Anal Chem 26(3):227–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    “Using Biosensor Technology for Long-Term Monitoring of Ground Water for Military Unique Compounds.” On line posting. 1 April 2004. http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/ltm/presents.html [2006 June 7] (2006). Accessed 7 June 2006
  11. 11.
    Wang J (2007) Electrochemical sensing of explosives. Electroanalysis 19(4):p415–p423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fu X, Benson RF, Wang J, Fries D (2005) Remote underwater electrochemical sensing system for detecting explosive residues in the field. Sensors and Actuators B106(1):296–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Singh S (2007) Sensors-An effective approach for the detection of explosives. J Hazard Mater 144(1–2):15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Krausa M, Doll J, Schorb K, Boke W, Hambitzer G (1997) Fast electrochemical detection of nitro- and aminoaromates in soils and liquids. Propellants, Explos, Pyrotech 22(3):156–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oesch U, Janata J (1983) Electrochemical study of gold electrodes with anodic oxide films–I. Formation and reduction behaviour of anodic oxides on gold. Electrochim Acta 28(9):1237–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Widrig CA, Chung C, Porter MD (1991) The electrochemical desorption of n-alkanethiol monolayers from polycrystalline gold and silver electrodes. J Electroanal Chem Interfacial Electrochem 310(1–2):335–359Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ulman A (1996) Formation and structure of self-assembled monolayers. Chem Rev (Washington, DC) 96(4):1533–1554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bozic RG, West AC, Levicky R (2008) Square wave voltammetric detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene on a gold electrode modified with self-assembled monolayers. Sensors and Actuators B 133(2):509–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang J, Thongngamdee S (2003) On-line electrochemical monitoring of (TNT) 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in natural waters. Anal Chim Acta 485(2):139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    U.S.Government (2006) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Orientation Manual On line posting http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/general/orientat/ [2006 June 7]. US Government
  21. 21.
    Bratin K, Kissinger PT, Briner RC, Bruntlett CS (1981) Determination of nitro aromatic, nitramine, and nitrate ester explosive compounds in explosive mixtures and gunshot residue by liquid chromatography and reductive electrochemical detection. Anal Chim Acta 130(2):295–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bozic RG (2008) Developing methods for the detection of ordnance related compounds. Columbia University, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Life ScienceUnited States Military AcademyWest PointUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations