Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 42, Issue 6, pp 443–453 | Cite as

Investigation of design parameter effects on high current performance of lithium-ion cells with LiFePO4/graphite electrodes

  • Seungho Yu
  • Youngmin Chung
  • Min Seob Song
  • Jin Hyun Nam
  • Won Il Cho
Original Paper


Electrode design is an essential task for successful development of lithium-ion batteries. Provided that the same materials are given, proper dimensioning of the electrodes and balanced composition of the materials in them can maximize the cell performance, such as the discharge capacity. However, many electrode design parameters have conflicting effects on the performance, and thus careful optimization of these parameters is required. This study experimentally investigated the effects of several electrode design parameters on the performance of lithium ion cells with a LiFePO4 cathode and a natural graphite anode, focusing on their high current operations. The conflicting effects of the conductor ratio (the weight fraction of electronic particle additives), electrode thickness, and electrode density (porosity) on the cell capacity were studied. In addition, a detailed one-dimensional electrochemical model was also used to simulate the observed performance characteristics and to identify their underlying mechanisms limiting the performance. Based on the experimental and numerical results, the optimal ranges for the electrode design parameters were discussed to achieve better performance of the LiFePO4/graphite batteries.


Lithium-ion battery LiFePO4 Battery design parameter Electrode thickness Active material density Electrochemical modeling 

List of symbols



Specific surface area of electrode i (i = n, p) (m−1)


Electrolyte concentration (mol m−3)


Concentration of lithium in the AM particle of electrode i (i = n, p) (mol m−3)


Electrolyte diffusion coefficient (m2 s−1)


Lithium-ion diffusion coefficient in the AM particle of electrode i (i = n, p) (m2 s−1)


Faraday’s constant (C mol−1)


Applied current density (A cm−2)


Wall flux of Li ion on the intercalation particle of electrode i (i = n, p) (mol m−2 s−1)


Reaction-rate constant of electrode i (i = n, p) [mol (mol m−3)−1.5]


Thickness of electrode i (i = n, s, p) (m)


Negative electrode


Positive electrode


Radial coordinate (m)


Universal gas constant [J (mol K)−1]


Radius of the AM particle of electrode i (i = n, p) (m)




Li ion transference number in the electrolyte


Absolute temperature (K)


Open-circuit potential of electrode i (i = n, p) (V)


Spatial coordinate (m)

Greek letters


Porosity of electrode i (i = n, s, p)


Volume fraction of fillers of electrode i (i = n, p)


Volume fraction of polymer of electrode i (i = n, p)


Effective ionic conductivity of the electrolyte in region i (i = n, s, p) (S m−1)


Electronic conductivity of the solid phase of electrode i (i = n, p) (S m−1)


Effective electronic conductivity of the solid phase of electrode i (i = n, p) (S m−1)


Solid-phase potential (V)


Electrolyte-phase potential (V)



This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency & Resources program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (2009201010003B-11-3-020 and 20102010100090-11-2-200).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Energy ConvergenceKorea Institute of Science and TechnologySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.School of Mechanical and Automotive EngineeringDaegu UniversityGyungsanRepublic of Korea

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