Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 39, Issue 7, pp 961–969 | Cite as

A review of the effects of benzotriazole on the corrosion of copper and copper alloys in clean and polluted environments

  • Nageh K. Allam
  • Ahmed Abdel Nazeer
  • Elsayed A. Ashour
Review Article


A continuing challenge in materials design is the achievement of high operational efficiency through improvements in performance criterion, particularly its service life-time characteristics. Benzotriazole (BTAH) has now been in use for many years for the protection of copper and copper alloys against various forms of corrosion. In this review, the chemistry of BTAH and theories regarding its mode of action are summarized. Also, a survey of the reported work in both clean and polluted environments is documented. More interestingly, the adverse effect of BTAH on the corrosion of Cu and Cu alloys in sulfide polluted environments is introduced.


Copper Copper alloys Corrosion Inhibition Benzotriazole Pollution 



Nageh K. Allam gratefully acknowledges Ford Foundation (IFP program) for the financial support. The authors are grateful to the Reviewers for their helpful suggestions and comments.


  1. 1.
    Poling GW (1970) Corros Sci 10:359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mansfeld F, Smith T, Parry EP (1971) Corrosion 27:289Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Walker R (1973) Corrosion 29:290Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chadwick D, Hashemi T (1978) Corros Sci 18:39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Allam NK (2007) Appl Surf Sci 253:4570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dugdale I, Cotton JB (1963) Corros Sci 3:69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cotton JB, Scholes IR (1967) Br Corros J 2:1Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hashemi T, Hogarh CA (1998) Electrochim Acta 33:1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fox PG, Lewis G, Boden PJ (1979) Corros Sci 19:457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Youda R, Nishihara H, Aramaki K (1990) Electrochim Acta 35:35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tromans D, Sun R (1991) J Electrochem Soc 138:3235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roberts RF (1974) J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 4:273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Babic R, Metikos-Hukovic M, Loncar M (1999) Electrochim Acta 44:2413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sayed SM, Ashour EA, Ateya BG (1994) Corros Sci 36:221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ashour EA, Sayed SM, Ateya BG (1995) J Appl Electrochem 25:137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hegazy HS, Ashour EA, Ateya BG (2001) J Appl Electrochem 31:1261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ashour EA, Hegazy HS, Ateya BG (2002) J Adsorpt Sci Technol 20:485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Allam NK, Ashour EA, Hegazy HS, El-Anadouli BE, Ateya BG (2005) Corros Sci 47:2280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Allam NK, Hegazy HS, Ashour EA (2007) Int J Electrochem Sci 2:549Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Allam NK, Ashour EA (2008) Appl Surf Sci 254:5007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Subramanian R, Lakshminarayanan V (2002) Corros Sci 44:535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yu P, Laio DM, Luo YB, Chen ZG (2003) Corrosion 59:314Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Frigani A, Fonsati M, Monticelli C, Brunoro G (1999) Corros Sci 41:1205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zerbino TO (1999) Electrochem Acta 45:819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Loo BH, Ibrahim A, Emerson MT (1998) Chem Phys Lett 287:449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bastidas JM, Pinilla P, Cano E, Polo JL, Miguel S (2003) Corros Sci 45:427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Polo JL, Pinilla P, Cano E, Bastidas JM (2003) Corrosion 59:414Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Arancibia A, Henriquez-Roman J, Paez MA, Padillacampos L, Zagal JH, Costamagna J, Cardenasjiron G (2005) J Solid State Electrochem. Current research and development in science and technology, Springer, 10.1007/s 10008-005-0014-xGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bartley J, Huynh N, Bottle SE, Flitt H, Notoya T, Schweinserg DP (2003) Corros Sci 45:81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Villamil RFV, Cordeiro GGO, Matos J, Elia ED, Agodtinho SML (2002) Mater Chem Phys 78:448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Polewska W, Vogt MR, Magnussenand M, Behm RJ (1999) J Phys Chem B 103:10440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cotton JB (1963) The Control of Surface Reactions on Copper by Means of Organic Reagents. Proceedings of the 2nd Inter. Congress on Metallic Corrosion, New York, pp. 590–596Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Xu Z, Sharon L, Bohn PW (1993) Langmuir 9:993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chen J-H, Zhi-Cheng L, Shu C, Lihue N, Shou-Zhou Y (1998) Electrochim Acta 43:265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Metikos-Hukovic M, Rabicand R, Marinovic A (1998) J Electrochem Soc 145:4045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ammeloot F, Fiaud F, Sutter EMM (1999) Electrochim Acta 44:2549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Maciel JM, Agostinoho SML (2000) J Appl Electrochem 30:981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Huyanh N, Bottle SE, Notoya T, Schweinsberg DP (2000) Corros Sci 42:259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Biggin ME, Gewirth AA (2001) J Electrochem Soc 148:C339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hepel M, Casteforis E (2001) Electrochim Acta 46:3801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tromans D (1998) J Electrochem Soc 145:L42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Al Kharafi FM, Abdullah AM, Ateya BG (2007) J Appl Electrochem 37:1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Abdullah M, Al-Kharafi FM, Ateya BG (2006) Scripta Mater 54:1673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hao Y-Z, Yang M-Z, Yu C, Cai S-M, Zhou G-D (1999) Thin Solid Films 347:289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zhou G-D, Shao H, Loo BH (1997) J Electroanal Chem 421:129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhang D-Q, Gao L-X, Zhou G-D (2004) Corros Sci 46:3031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mamas S, Kiyak T, Kabasakaloglu M, Koc A (2005) Mater Chem Phys 93:41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Guilminot E, Rameau JJ, Dalard F, Degrigny C, Hiron X (2000) J Appl Electrochem 30:21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zhang DQ, Gao LX, Zhou GD (2003) J Appl Electrochem 33:361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pavlovic MG, Pavlovic LJ, Doroslovacki LD, Nikolic ND (2004) Hydrometallurgy 73:155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Faltermeier RB (1998) Stud Conserv 44:121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kato C, Ateya BG, Castle JE, Pickering HW (1980) J. Electrochem Soc 127:1890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Maciel JM, Jaimes RFVV, Corio P, Rubim JC, Volpe PL, Neto AA, Agostinho SML (2008) Corros Sci 50:879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shen W, Nobe K (1986) Proc. Hackerman Symp., Pennington, New Jersey. Electrochem Soc 86:82Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sanad SH, Abbas H, Ismail AA, El-Sobki KM (1985) Surf Technol 25:39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kosec T, Milosev I, Pihlar B (2007) Appl Surf Sci 253:8863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ravichandran R, Rajendran N (2005) Appl Surf Sci 239:182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shih HC, Tzou RJ (1993) Corros Sci 35:479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hassairi H, Bousselmi L, Khosrof S, Triki E (2008) Mater Corros 59:32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Antonijevic MM, Milic SM, Serbula SM, Bogdanovic GD (2005) Electrochim Acta 50:3693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Shih HC, Tzou RJ (1991) J Electrochem Soc 138:958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    da Costa SLFA, Agostinho SML, Nobe K (1993) J Electrochem Soc 140:3483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Walker R (1999) Br Corros J 34:304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Otieno-Alego V, Huynh N, Notoya T, Bottle SE, Schweinsberg DP (1999) Corros Sci 41:685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Frignani A, Tommesani L, Brunoro G, Monticelli C, Fogagnolo M (1999) Corros Sci 41:1205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Frignani A, Tommesani L, Brunoro G, Monticelli C, Fogagnolo M (1999) Corros Sci 41:1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Otieno-Alego V, Hope GA, Notoya T, Schweinsberg DP (1996) Corros Sci 38:213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wu Y-C, Zhang P, Pickering HW, Allara DL (1993) Electrochem Soc 140:2791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jacobs S, Edwards M (2000) Water Res 24:2798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Vazquez M, Desanchez SR (1998) J Appl Electrochem 28:1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Alhaiji JN, Reda MR (1995) J Electrochem Soc 142:2944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Shalaby HM, Al-Hashem A, Al-Muhana K (1996) Br Corros J 31:199Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gudas JP, Hack HP (1979) Corrosion 35:67Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    de Sanchez SR, Schiffrin DJ (1982) Corros Sci 22:585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Al-kharafi FM, Abdullah AM, Ghayad IM, Ateya BG (2007) Appl Surf Sci 253:8986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Macdonald DD, Syrett BC, Wing SS (1979) Corrosion 35:367Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kato C, Pickering HW, Castle JE (1984) J Electrochem Soc 131:1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Alhaiji JN, Reda MR (1994) J Electrochem Soc 141:1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Smith J, Qin Z, King F, Werme L, Shoesmith DW (2007) Corrosion 63:135Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rahmouni K, Keddam M, Srhiri A, Takenouti H (2005) Corros Sci 47:3249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ashour EA, Hegazy HS, Ateya BG (2000) J Electrochem Soc 147:1767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Al-kharafi FM, Ateya BG (2002) J Electrochem Soc 149:206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Al-kharafi FM, Abdullah AM, Ateya BG (2006) Electrochem Solid-State Lett 9:B19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lee TS, Hack HP, Tiplor DG (1980) 5th Int. Cong. Marine Corros. and FoulingGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Al-Farawati A, Vanden Berg CMG (1999) Marine Chem 63:331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Christensen TM, Sorensen NR (1991) Surf Int Anal 17:3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Babic R, Metikos-Hukovic M (2000) Thin Solid Films 359:8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Dean JA (1992) Langes handbook of chemistry, vol Section 8, 14th edn. Mcgraw-Hill, Inc., New York, p 808Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Tromans D, Silvia JC (1997) Corrosion 53:16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tromans D, Sun RH (1991) J Elecrochem Soc 138:3235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Syrett BC (1981) Corros Sci 21:187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hack HP, Gudas JP (1980) Mater Perform 4:25Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gasparini R, Della Rocca C, Iaoanni E (1970) Corros Sci 10:157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Maciel JM, Villamil RFV, Corio P, Rubim JC, Volpe PL, Neto AA, Agostinho SML (2008) Corros Sci 50:879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Fiaud C, Ghimouz N (1989) Br Corros J 24:279Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Proyr MJ, Cohen M (1953) J Electrochem Soc 100:203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Evans UR (1963) An Introduction to metallic corrosion, 2nd edn. Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., London, p 151Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Scully JC (1990) The fundamentals of corrosion. Pergamon Press, New York, p 136Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nageh K. Allam
    • 1
  • Ahmed Abdel Nazeer
    • 1
  • Elsayed A. Ashour
    • 1
  1. 1.Physical Chemistry Department, Electrochemistry LaboratoryNational Research CentreDokki, CairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations