Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 37, Issue 10, pp 1137–1144 | Cite as

Electrochemical treatment of ammonia in wastewater by RuO2–IrO2–TiO2/Ti electrodes

  • Jinluan Chen
  • Hanchang ShiEmail author
  • Jinghua Lu
Original Paper


This study investigated the removal of ammonia in wastewater by an electrochemical method using titanium electrodes coated with ruthenium and iridium (RuO2–IrO2–TiO2/Ti) with low chlorine evolution over-voltage. The effects of operating parameters, including chloride ion concentration, current density and initial pH, were also investigated. The results were evaluated primarily by considering the efficiency of the elimination of NH 4 + -N. The removal of ammonia by electrochemical oxidation mainly resulted from the indirect oxidation effect of chlorine/hypochlorite produced during electrolysis. The direct anodic oxidation efficiency of ammonia was less than 5%, and the current efficiency was less than 10%. The ammonia removal followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The electrochemical process can be applied successfully as a final polishing step, or as an alternative method to biological nitrification. The process seems to be most beneficial for small coastal cities


Ammonia removal Current efficiency Electrochemical treatment Kinetics Indirect anodic oxidation RuO2–IrO2–TiO2/Ti electrode 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ESPC State Key Joint Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringTsinghua UniversityBeijingP.R. China

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