Advertisement

Transforming early concepts with Design Heuristics

  • Keelin Leahy
  • Shanna R. Daly
  • Jaclyn K. Murray
  • Seda McKilligan
  • Colleen M. Seifert
Article

Abstract

Idea development in the early phases of the design process often involves the transformation of initial concepts into more feasible alternatives. However, this important component of design activity is often under-emphasized in design education, and tools to facilitate iteration of designs are limited. This study investigated Design Heuristics as a tool for the further development of initial concepts created by student designers. In a single session, advanced engineering students created initial concepts, and then used Design Heuristics to transform these concepts into alternative designs. The concept sets generated were analyzed, and eight types of transformations were identified, including the enhancement of aesthetics, features, functions, settings, materials, sizes, organizations, and usability. Design Heuristics supported students’ concept development by providing specific suggestions about ways to iterate on their initial concepts. As a result, students explored alternative concepts by producing multiple transformations of their designs, and were more likely to select these transformed concepts as their most creative, unique, and favourite designs.

Keywords

Design Idea generation Design Heuristics Idea development Design education 

References

  1. Adamson, R. (1952). Functional fixedness as related to problem solving: A repetition of three experiments. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 44(4), 288–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, M. (1962). Morphological creativity: The miracle of your hidden brain power. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Altshuller, G. (1997). 40 Principles: TRIZ keys to technical innovation. Worcester, Mass.: Technical Innovation Center Inc.Google Scholar
  4. Atman, C. J., Adams, R. S., Cardella, M. E., Turns, J., Mosborg, S., & Saleem, J. (2007). Engineering design processes: A comparison of students and expert practitioners. Journal of Engineering Education, 96, 359–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, T. (2009). Change by design. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  6. Christian, J. L., Daly, S. R., Yilmaz, S., Seifert, C., & Gonzalez, R. (2012). Design Heuristics support two modes of idea generation: Initiating ideas and transitioning among concepts. In American society of engineering education conference proceedings.Google Scholar
  7. Chusilp, P., & Jin, Y. (2006). Impact of mental iteration on concept generation. Journal of Mechanical Design, 128(1), 14–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crilly, N. (2015). Fixation and creativity in concept development: The attitudes and practices of expert designers. Design Studies, 38, 54–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Daly, S. R., Christian, J. L., Yilmaz, S., Seifert, C. M., & Gonzalez, R. (2011). Teaching design ideation. In Proceedings of American society for engineering education annual conference, (AC 2011-1569), Vancouver, BC, Canada.Google Scholar
  10. Daly, S. R., Christian, J., Yilmaz, S., Seifert, C., & Gonzalez, R. (2012a). Assessing Design Heuristics in idea generation within an introductory engineering design course. International Journal of Engineering Education, 28(2), 463–473.Google Scholar
  11. Daly, S. R., Seifert, C. M., Yilmaz, S., & Gonzalez, R. (2016). Comparing ideation techniques for beginning designers. Journal of Mechanical Design, 138(10), 101108–101112.  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4034087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Daly, S., Yilmaz, S., Christian, J., Seifert, C., & Gonzalez, R. (2012b). Design Heuristics in engineering concept generation. Journal of Engineering Education, 101(4), 601–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Daly, S., Yilmaz, S., Seifert, C., Gonzalez, R. (2010). Cognitive heuristic use in engineering design ideation. In Proceedings of the American society for engineering education (AC 2010-1032). Washington, DC: American Society for Engineering Education.Google Scholar
  14. De Carvalho, M. A., Wei, T. C., & Savransky, S. D. (2001) Validation of Heuristics for Systems Transformations. In Proceedings of TRIZCON2001, Altshuller Institute, Woodland Hills, CA.Google Scholar
  15. Design Council (2007). Eleven lessons: managing design in eleven global brands. A study of the design process. Design Council, UK, http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/resources/report/11-lessons-managing-design-global-brands. Accessed 20 November 2017.
  16. Diehl, M., & Wolfgang, S. (1987). Productivity loss in brainstorming groups: Toward the solution of a riddle. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(3), 497–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eberle, B. (1996). Scamper: Games for imagination development. Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.Google Scholar
  18. Fogler, S., LeBlanc, S., & Rizzo, B. (2013). Strategies for creative problem solving. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  19. Girotra, K., Terwiesch, C., & Ulrich, K. T. (2010). Idea generation and the quality of the best idea. Management Science, 56(4), 591–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goldschmidt, G., & Tatsa, D. (2005). How good are good ideas? Correlates of design creativity. Design Studies, 26(6), 593–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jansson, D. G., & Smith, S. M. (1991). Design fixation. Design Studies, 12(1), 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jensen, T. & Andreasen, M. (2010). Design methods in practice—beyond the ‘systematic approach’ of Pahl & Beitz. In International design conferencedesign 2010 (pp. 1–10). Dubrovnik, Croatia.Google Scholar
  23. Jin, Y., & Chusilp, P. (2006). Study of mental iteration in different design situations. Design Studies, 27(1), 25–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kimbell, R. (1982). Design education: the foundation years. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Kramer, J., Daly, S. R., Yilmaz, S., Seifert, C. M., & Gonzalez, R. (2015). Investigating the impacts of Design Heuristics on idea initiation and development. Advances in Engineering Education, 4(4), 1.Google Scholar
  26. Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33(1), 159–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Laughlin, P., Bonner, B., & Miner, A. (2002). Groups perform better than the best individuals on letters-to-numbers problems. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 88(2), 605–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leahy, K., & Phelan, P. (2014). A review of Technology Education in Ireland; a changing technological environment promoting design activity. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 24, 375–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Linsey, J. S., Tseng, I., Fu, K., Cagan, J., Wood, K. L., & Schunn, C. (2010). A study of design fixation, its mitigation and perception in engineering design faculty. Journal of Mechanical Design, 132, 041003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maier, N. R. (1931). Reasoning in humans. II. The solution of a problem and its appearance in consciousness. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 12(2), 181–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McHugh, M. L. (2012). Interrater reliability: the kappa statistic. Biochemia medica, 22(3), 276–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moreno, D. P., Yang, M. C., Hernandez, A., & Wood, K. L. (2014). Creativity in transactional design problems: Non-intuitive findings of an expert study using scamper. In International design conference, human behavior and design (pp. 569–578). Dubrovnik, Croatia.Google Scholar
  33. Mullen, B., Johnson, C., & Salas, E. (1991). Productivity loss in brainstorming groups: A meta-analytic integration. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 12(1), 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Osborn, A. F. (1957). Applied Imagination: Principles and Procedures of Creative Thinking (Vol. 3 Revised). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
  35. Pahl, G., & Beitz, W. (2007). Engineering design: A systematic approach. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Paulus, Paul B., & Dzindolet, Mary T. (1993). Social influence processes in group brainstorming. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(4), 575–586.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.64.4.575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Perttula, M., & Sipila, P. (2007). The idea exposure paradigm in design idea generation. Journal of Engineering Design, 18(1), 93–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Polovinkin, A. I. (1988). The ABC of engineering creativity. Moscow: Mashinostroenie (in Russian).Google Scholar
  39. Polovinkin, A. I. (1991). Theory of new technique design: Laws of technical systems and their applications. Moscow: Informelektro (in Russian).Google Scholar
  40. Purcell, A. T., & Gero, J. S. (1996). Design and other types of fixation. Design Studies (Special Issue: Design Cognition and Computation), 17(4), 363–383.Google Scholar
  41. Römer, A., Weißhahn, G., & Hacker, W. (2001). Effortsaving product representations in design: Results of a questionnaire survey. Design Studies, 22, 473–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Runco, M. A., & Jaeger, G. J. (2012). The standard definition of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 24(1), 92–96.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2012.650092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shah, J. J., Smith, S. M., & Vargas-Hernandez, N. (2003). Metrics for measuring ideation effectiveness. Design Studies, 24(2), 111–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Singh, V., Skiles, S. M., Krager, J. E., Wood, K. L., Jensen, D., & Sierakowski, R. (2009). Innovations in design through transformation: A fundamental study of transformation principles. Journal of Mechanical Design, 131(8), 081010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Singh, V., Walter, B., Krager, J., Putnam, N., Koraishy. B., Wood. K., & Jensen, D. (2007). Design for transformation: Theory, method and application. In Proceedings of the IDETC/CIE 2007, ASME 2007 international design engineering technical conferences and computers and information in engineering conference, September, Las Vegas, NV.Google Scholar
  46. Smith, R. P., & Eppinger, S. D. (1997). Identifying controlling features of engineering design iteration. Management Science, 43(3), 276–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tessari, R. K., & De Carvalho, M. A. (2015). Compilation of heuristics for inventive problem solving. Procedia Engineering, 131, 50–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tsenn, J., Atilola, O., McAdams, D. A., & Linsey, J. S. (2014). The effects of time and incubation on design concept generation. Design Studies, 35(5), 500–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Weaver, J., Wood, K., Crawford, R., & Jensen, D. (2010). Transformation design theory: A meta-analogical framework. Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 10, 31012-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Weaver, J., Wood, K., & Jensen, D. (2008). Transformation facilitators: A quantitative analysis of reconfigurable products and their characteristics. In Proceedings of the ASME 2008 international design engineering conferences and computers and information in engineering conference, IDETC/CIE 2008, Brooklyn, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  51. Yilmaz, S., Daly, S. R., Christian, J. L., Seifert, C. M., & Gonzalez, R. (2013). Can experienced designers learn from new tools? A case study of idea generation in a professional engineering team. International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation, 2, 1–15.Google Scholar
  52. Yilmaz, S., Daly, S. R., Christian, J. L., Seifert, C. M., & Gonzalez, R. (2014). 77 Cards: Design heuristics for inspiring ideas. Ames, IA: Design Heuristics Inc.Google Scholar
  53. Yilmaz, S., Daly, S. R., Seifert, C. M., & Gonzalez, R. (2015). How do designers generate new ideas? Design heuristics across two disciplines. Design Science.  https://doi.org/10.1017/dsj.2015.4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yilmaz, S., Daly, S. R., Seifert, C. M., & Gonzalez, R. (2016a). Evidence-based Design Heuristics for idea generation. Design Studies, 46, 95–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yilmaz, S., & Seifert, C. M. (2011). Creativity through Design Heuristics: A case study of expert product design. Design Studies, 32(4), 384–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yilmaz, S., Seifert, C. M., Daly, S. R., & Gonzalez, R. (2016b). Design strategies in innovative products. Journal of Mechanical Design, 138(7), 071102–071112.  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4032219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yilmaz, S., Seifert, C. M., & Gonzalez, R. (2010). Cognitive heuristics in design: Instructional strategies to increase creativity in idea generation. Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design and Manufacturing, 24, 335–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhang, X., Hao, Y., & Thomson, V. (2015). Taking ideas from paper to practice: a case study of improving design processes through detailed modeling and systematic analysis. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 48(3), 1043–1048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zwicky, F. (1969). Discovery, invention, research through the morphological approach. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keelin Leahy
    • 1
  • Shanna R. Daly
    • 2
  • Jaclyn K. Murray
    • 2
  • Seda McKilligan
    • 3
  • Colleen M. Seifert
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Education, Faculty of Education and Health SciencesUniversity of LimerickLimerickIreland
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Department of Industrial DesignIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations