The role of mental models in collaborative sketching

  • Wei Xiang
  • Lingyun Sun
  • Shi Chen
  • Zhiyuan Yang
  • Zheng Liu
Article

Abstract

Designers often collaborate to explore creative ideas, especially during the early stages of conceptual design, and their mental models, as the framework of design tasks, greatly influence the collaborative sketching process. Such models have multiple kinds of differences and each kind might have unique effects, yet previous studies analyzed these differences as a whole and have reported only the effects of overall similarity. Because ideas are the embodiments of mental models, this study referred to the components of ideas to construct the structure of mental models. We constructed a three-level mental model involving goals, functions, and structures and arranged the ideas in sketching accordingly into a three-level idea tree. A collaborative sketching experiment was conducted, and the effects of the three levels of mental models were compared. Participants accepted different goals and produced large numbers of new functions. They stuck with similar functions and continued to generate new structures. Participants had different strategies when exploring the levels of the mental models, providing possibilities for new methods of collaborative sketching.

Keywords

Collaborative design Conceptual design Mental model Sketching 

References

  1. Andreasen, M. M. (1994). Modelling: The language of the designer. Journal of Engineering Design, 5(2), 103–115. doi:10.1080/09544829408907876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ariff, N. S. N. A., Badke-Schaub, P., & Eris, O. (2012). Conversations around design sketches: Use of communication channels for sharing mental models during concept generation. Design and Technology Education: An International Journal, 17(3), 27–36.Google Scholar
  3. Badke-Schaub, P., Goldschmidt, G., & Meijer, M. (2010). How does cognitive conflict in design teams support the development of creative ideas? Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(2), 119–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Badke-Schaub, P., Neumann, A., Lauche, K., & Mohammed, S. (2007). Mental models in design teams: A valid approach to performance in design collaboration? CoDesign, 3(1), 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boos, M. (2007). Optimal sharedness of mental models for effective group performance. CoDesign, 3(1), 21–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang, T.-W. (2006). Modeling generative interplay using actingrole model: From distributed collaboration to generative interplay. CoDesign, 2(01), 35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Craft, B., & Cairns, P. (2006). Using sketching to aid the collaborative design of information visualisation software - A case study. In T. Clemmensen, P. Campos, R. Orngreen, A. Pejtersen & W. Wong (Eds.), Human work interaction design: Designing for human work (Vol. 221, pp. 103–122, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing). US: Springer.Google Scholar
  8. Craft, B., & Cairns, P. (2009). Sketching sketching: outlines of a collaborative design method. In Paper presented at the proceedings of the 23rd British HCI Group Annual Conference on People and Computers: Celebrating People and Technology. Cambridge, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  9. Deng, Y. (2002). Function and behavior representation in conceptual mechanical design. AI EDAM, 16(5), 343–362.Google Scholar
  10. Dong, A., Hill, A. W., & Agogino, A. M. (2004). A document analysis method for characterizing design team performance. Journal of Mechanical Design, 126(3), 378–385. doi:10.1115/1.1711818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dong, A., Kleinsmann, M. S., & Deken, F. (2013). Investigating design cognition in the construction and enactment of team mental models. Design Studies, 34(1), 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dorst, K., & Cross, N. (2001). Creativity in the design process: co-evolution of problem–solution. Design Studies, 22(5), 425–437. doi:10.1016/S0142-694X(01)00009-6.
  13. Dow, S. P., Glassco, A., Kass, J., Schwarz, M., Schwartz, D. L., & Klemmer, S. R. (2010). Parallel prototyping leads to better design results, more divergence, and increased self-efficacy. ACM Transactions. Computer Human Interaction, 17(4), 1–24. doi:10.1145/1879831.1879836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gero, J. S. (1990). Design prototypes: A knowledge representation schema for design. AI Magazine, 11(4), 26–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goldschmidt, G. (1995). The designer as a team of one. Design Studies, 16(2), 189–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gül, L., & Maher, M. (2009). Co-creating external design representations: Comparing face-to-face sketching to designing in virtual environments. CoDesign, 5(2), 117–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hargadon, A. B., & Bechky, B. A. (2006). When collections of creatives become creative collectives: A field study of problem solving at work. Organization Science, 17(4), 484–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jimenez-Narvaez, L.-M., & Segrera, A. (2011). Creative collaborative strategies of remote sketching on design. In Design Creativity 2010 (pp. 241–248). Springer.Google Scholar
  19. Jin, Y., & Benami, O. (2010). Creative patterns and stimulation in conceptual design. Ai Edam-Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design Analysis and Manufacturing, 24(2), 191–209. doi:10.1017/s0890060410000053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Johnson, J. (2005). Complexity science in collaborative design. CoDesign, 1(4), 223–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1983). Mental models: Towards a cognitive science of language, inference, and consciousness (Vol. 6). Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Johnson-Laird, P. N. (2013). Mental models and cognitive change. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25(2), 131–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jones, N. A., Ross, H., Lynam, T., Perez, P., & Leitch, A. (2011). Mental models: an interdisciplinary synthesis of theory and methods. Ecology and Society, 16(1), 46.Google Scholar
  24. Klimoski, R., & Mohammed, S. (1994). Team mental model: Construct or metaphor? Journal of Management, 20(2), 403–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Langan-Fox, J., Anglim, J., & Wilson, J. R. (2004). Mental models, team mental models, and performance: Process, development, and future directions. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing and Service Industries, 14(4), 331–352. doi:10.1002/hfm.20004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Le Dantec, C. A., & Do, E. Y.-L. (2009). The mechanisms of value transfer in design meetings. Design Studies, 30(2), 119–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Leonard, D., & Sensiper, S. (1998). The role of tacit knowledge in group innovation. California Management Review, 40(3), 112–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Marshall, N. (2007). Team mental models in action: a practice-based perspective. CoDesign, 3(1), 29–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mathieu, J. E., Heffner, T. S., Goodwin, G. F., Cannon-Bowers, J. A., & Salas, E. (2005). Scaling the quality of teammates’ mental models: Equifinality and normative comparisons. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(1), 37–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mathieu, J. E., Heffner, T. S., Goodwin, G. F., Salas, E., & Cannon-Bowers, J. A. (2000). The influence of shared mental models on team process and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(2), 273–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McDonnell, J. (2012). Accommodating disagreement: A study of effective design collaboration. Design Studies, 33(1), 44–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mohammed, S., Ferzandi, L., & Hamilton, K. (2010). Metaphor no more: A 15-year review of the team mental model construct. Journal of Management, 36(4), 876–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Oak, A. (2012). ‘You can argue it two ways’: The collaborative management of a design dilemma. Design Studies, 33(6), 630–648. doi:10.1016/j.destud.2012.06.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Osborn, A. F. (1953). Applied imagination. Oxford, England: Scribner’S.Google Scholar
  35. Ozkaya, I., & Akin, Ö. (2005). Use of requirement traceability in collaborative design environments. CoDesign, 1(3), 155–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Perry, M., & Sanderson, D. (1998). Coordinating joint design work: The role of communication and artefacts. Design Studies, 19(3), 273–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Römer, A., Pache, M., Weißhahn, G., Lindemann, U., & Hacker, W. (2001). Effort-saving product representations in design-results of a questionnaire survey. Design Studies, 22(6), 473–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stempfle, J., & Badke-Schaub, P. (2002). Thinking in design teams-an analysis of team communication. Design Studies, 23(5), 473–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Storey, M.-A., Fracchia, F. D., & Müller, H. A. (1999). Cognitive design elements to support the construction of a mental model during software exploration. Journal of Systems and Software, 44(3), 171–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Suwa, M., Gero, J. S., & Purcell, T. A. (1998). The roles of sketches in early conceptual design processes. In Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.Google Scholar
  41. Valkenburg, R., & Dorst, K. (1998). The reflective practice of design teams. Design Studies, 19(3), 249–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. van der Lugt, R. (2005). How sketching can affect the idea generation process in design group meetings. Design Studies, 26(2), 101–122. doi:10.1016/j.destud.2004.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yang, M. C. (2009). Observations on concept generation and sketching in engineering design. Research in Engineering Design, 20(1), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Xiang
    • 1
  • Lingyun Sun
    • 1
  • Shi Chen
    • 1
  • Zhiyuan Yang
    • 1
  • Zheng Liu
    • 2
  1. 1.Modern Industrial Design InstituteZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.School of DesignChina Academy of ArtHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations