A Synergy Between the Technological Process and a Methodology for Web Design: Implications for Technological Problem Solving and Design

  • Maria Jakovljevic
  • Piet Ankiewicz
  • Estelle De swardt
  • Elna Gross


Traditional instructional methodology in the Information System Design (ISD) environment lacks explicit strategies for promoting the cognitive skills of prospective system designers. This contributes to the fragmented knowledge and low motivational and creative involvement of learners in system design tasks. In addition, present ISD methodologies, including web design methodologies, do not focus sufficiently on technological problem solving and design. Engagement in system design tasks demands critical thinking [Shelly, Cashman & Rosenblatt, 2001, Systems Analysis and Design, 4th edn. Course Technology, Boston] and abstraction skills [Harris, 1999, Systems Analysis and Design for the Small Enterprise, The Dryden Press, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Fort Worth]. The aim of this paper is to explain a synergy between the technological process and web design methodology and its influence on the development of the cognitive skills of learners in the ISD context. In this research, the Team Structure Software Process (TSSP) methodology was integrated with the stages of the technological process. An interface approach between Information Systems and Technology Education was adopted during the implementation of an Instructional Web Design Program (IWDP), which served as a framework for building a software product. This research was based on a qualitative, action-research approach where individual interviews, focus group interviews, observation and document sources were used to gather data. Seventeen students at an institution of higher education were observed and their experiences were investigated through a focus group interview, journals and an essay. In addition, an interview with the teacher was conducted to investigate her thoughts and feelings during the implementation of the IWDP. During the implementation of the IWDP, multi-method learning was promoted, enlarging learners' insight into the design process and a climate for enhancing intellectual processes and skills created [Jakovljevic, 2002, An Instructional Model for Teaching Complex Thinking through Web Page Design, DEd thesis, Rand Afrikaan University, Johannesburg]

complex thinking information technology instructional web design program technological process technology education web design 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ankiewicz, P. J. & De Swardt, A. E.: 2002, Aspects to be Taken into Account When Compiling Learning Programme to Support Effective Facilitation of Technology Education. National Conference for Technology Teachers, Port Natal School, Durban, Conference Proceedings, 76-81, 30 September-1 October.Google Scholar
  2. Ankiewicz, P. J., De Swardt, A. E. & Stark, R.: 2000, Principles, Methods and Techniques of Technology Education I, RAU College for Education and Health, Johannesburg.Google Scholar
  3. Arzarello, F., Chiappini, G. P., Lemut, E., Marara, N. & Pellery, M.: 1993, 'Learning Programming as a Cognitive Apprenticeship Through Conflicts', in E., Lemut, D. U., B.Boulay, & G. Dettori: 1993, Cognitive Models and Intelligent Environments for Learning Models, Springer-Verlag, Germany, 284-297.Google Scholar
  4. Baskerville, R. L. & Wood-Harper, A. T.: 1996, 'A Critical Perspective on Action Research as a Method for Information System Research', Journal of Information Technology 11, 235-246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baskerville, R. L. & Pries-Heje, J.: 1999, 'Grounded Action Research: A Method for Understanding IT in Practice ', Accounting, Management and Information Technologies 9, 1-23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blignaut, A. S.: 1993, Using Database in the Home Economics Classroom: A Case Study. MEd thesis (CBI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria.Google Scholar
  7. Carver, S. M., Lehrer, R., Connell, T. & Erickson, J.: 1992, 'Learning by Hypermedia Design: Issues of Assessment and Implementation ', Educational Psychologist 27 (3), 385-404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Creswell, J. W.: 1994, Research Design: Qualitative & Quantitative Approaches, Sage Publication, Inc, California.Google Scholar
  9. Conger, A. & Mason, R. O.: 1998, Planning and Designing Effective Web Sites, Course Technology, Canada.Google Scholar
  10. DeLuca, W.: 1992, 'Survey of Technology Education: Problem-Solving Activities ', The Technology Teacher 51 (5), 26-30.Google Scholar
  11. Department of Education (DoE).: 1997, Draft Policy-Senior Phase. Policy Document, Pretoria.Google Scholar
  12. De Vries, M. J.: 1999, Avoiding the Pitfalls of a 'High Tech Hype ': Teaching and Learning Basic Concepts in Technology. Seminar on Technology Education at RAUTEC, Johannesburg (South Africa), Seminar Proceedings, 20-26, 28 September.Google Scholar
  13. Dick, W.: 1991, 'An Instructional Designer 's View of Constructivism', Educational Technology 31 (5), 41-44.Google Scholar
  14. Doornekamp, B. G. & Streumer, J. N.: 1996, 'Problem-Solving in Teaching/Learning Packages for Technology', International Journal of Technology and Design Education 6, 61-82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eggen, P. D. & Kauchak D. P.: 1996, Strategies for Teachers: Teaching Content and Thinking Skills, 3rd edn, Allyn & Bacon, Boston.Google Scholar
  16. Garratt, J.: 1998, Design and Technology, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  17. Gardner, H.: 1983, Frames of Mind, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Gauteng Department of Education (GDE) and Gauteng Institute for Curriculum Development (GICD), 1999, Technology Draft Progress Map, Norwood, Pretoria.Google Scholar
  19. Geyser, H. C.: 1998, Portfolios in Outcomes-Based Education, in Technology Education Module, 1999: (B. Ed) Technology Education C (Instructional Methodology) Unit 1, Rand Afrikaans University, Department of Curriculum Studies, EASA.Google Scholar
  20. Givens, N. & Barlex, D.: 2001, 'The Role of Published Material in Curriculum Development and Implementation for Secondary School Design and Technology in England and Wales ', International Journal of Technology and Design Education 11, 137-161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Greenberg, J. & Lakeland, J. R.: 1999, Building Professional Web Sites with the Right Tools, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.Google Scholar
  22. Harris, D.: 1999, Systems Analysis and Design for the Small Enterprise, The Dryden Press, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Fort Worth.Google Scholar
  23. Hill, A. M.: 1998, 'Problem-Solving in Real Life Contexts: An Alternative for Design in Technology Education ', International Journal of Technology and Design Education 8, 203-220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jakovljevic, M.: 2002, An Instructional Model for Teaching Complex Thinking through Web Page Design. DEd thesis, Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg.Google Scholar
  25. Jakovljevic, M., Ankiewicz, P. & De Swardt, E.: 2000, Technological Stages in System Development Life Cycle: An Application to Web Page Design. The 2nd Annual Conference on World Wide Web Applications, Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg, 3-6 September.Google Scholar
  26. Jakovljevic, M., Ankiewicz, P., De Swardt, E. & Gross, E.: 2001, Implications of the Technological Process for Teaching Web Design: A Case Study. PATT (South Africa) Conference Proceedings, 57-64, 4-6 October.Google Scholar
  27. Johnsey, R.: 1995, 'The Design Process-Does It Exist? A Critical Review of Published Models for the Design Process in England and Wales ', International Journal of Technology and Design Education 5, 199-217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Johnson, S. D.: 1997, 'Learning Technological Concepts and Developing Intellectual Skills ', International Journal of Technology and Design Education 7, 161-180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnson, S. D. & Thomas, R.: 1992, 'Technology Education and the Cognitive Revolution ', The Technology Teacher 51 (4), 7-12.Google Scholar
  30. Jonassen, D. H.: 1996, Computers in the Classroom: Mind tools for Critical Thinking, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  31. Jones, A.: 1997, 'Recent Research in Learning Technological Concepts and Processes', International Journal of Technology and Design Education 7, 83-96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jones, M. G. & Carter, G.: 1998, 'Small Groups and Shared Constructions', in J. J. Mintzes, J. H. Wadersee & J. D. Novak: 1998, Teaching Science for Understanding, Academic Press, California, 261-278.Google Scholar
  33. Kerlinger, F. N.: 1992, Foundations of Behavioural Research, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Orlando.Google Scholar
  34. Laurillard, D.: 1994, Rethinking University Teaching: A Framework for the Effective Use of Educational Technology, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  35. LeCompte, M. D., Preissle, J. & Renata, T.: 1993, Ethnography and Qualitative Design in Education Research, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  36. Magadla, L.: 1996, 'Constructivism: A Practitioner 's Perspective ', South African Journal of Higher Education 10 (1), 83-88.Google Scholar
  37. Mebl, M. C.: 1997, 'SAQA and the NQF: An Outsider 's View ', South African Qualification Authority Bulletin 2(2), 31-37.Google Scholar
  38. Merriam, S. B.: 1998, Case Study Research in Education: A Qualitative Approach, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  39. Morris, M. E. S. & Hinrichs, R. I.: 1996, Web Page Design: A Different Multimedia, Sun Soft Press, Sun Microsystems, Inc, California.Google Scholar
  40. McCormick, R.: 1997, 'Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge ', International Journal of Technology and Design Education 7, 141-159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McCormick, R., Murphy, P. & Hennessy, S.: 1994, 'Problem-Solving Approach Technology Education: A Pilot Study ', International Journal of Technology and Design Education 4(1), 5-34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Patton, M. Q.: 1980, Qualitative Evaluation Methods, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA.Google Scholar
  43. Powell, T. A.: 2000, The Complete Reference: Web Design, Osborne/McGraw-Hill, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  44. Reddy, K.: 2001, The Education of Pre-Service Teachers in Technology Education. DEd Thesis, Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg.Google Scholar
  45. Reddy, K., Ankiewicz, P. J. & De Swardt, A. E.: 2003, 'The Essential Features of Technology Education: A Conceptual Framework for the Development of OBE (Outcomes Based Education) Related Programmes in Technology Education ', International Journal of Technology and Design Education 13, 27-45.Google Scholar
  46. Satzinger, J. W., Jackson R. B & Burd, S. D.: 2002, Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 2nd edn, Course Technology, Boston.Google Scholar
  47. Sharpe, D. B.: 1996, 'Out with the Old, in with the New ', Journal of Design and Technology Education 1(1), 24-36.Google Scholar
  48. Shelly, G. B; Cashman, T. J., & Rosenblatt, H. J.: 2001, Systems Analysis and Design, 4th edn, Course Technology, Boston.Google Scholar
  49. South African Qualification Authority (SAQA).: 1997, Bulletin, The Office of the Executive Officer, Pretoria.Google Scholar
  50. Susman, G.: 1983, 'Action Research: A Socio-Technical Systems Perspective ', in G. Morgan (ed., ) Beyond Method: Strategies for Social Research, Sage Newbury Park, 95-113.Google Scholar
  51. Todd, R. D.: 1990, 'The Teaching and Learning Environment: Designing Instruction via the Technological Method ', The Technology Teacher 50 (3), 3-7.Google Scholar
  52. Wheatley, G. H.: 1991, 'Constructivist Perspectives on Science and Mathematics Learning ', Science Education 75 (1), 9-21.Google Scholar
  53. Whitney, P.: 1987, 'On Practice and Research: Confession of an Educational Researcher ', Lifelong Learning 10 (8), 12-15.Google Scholar
  54. Winn, W.: 1990, 'Some Implications of Cognitive Theory for Instructional Design ', Instructional Science 19, 53-69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yin, K. R.: 1994, Case Study Research-Design and Methods, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Jakovljevic
    • 1
  • Piet Ankiewicz
    • 2
  • Estelle De swardt
    • 2
  • Elna Gross
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Economics and Business Sciences, Information SystemsUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Curriculum StudiesRand Afrikaans University (RAU)South Africa

Personalised recommendations