International Ophthalmology

, Volume 38, Issue 6, pp 2477–2485 | Cite as

Conjunctival changes in different clinical variants of early pseudoexfoliation

  • Aparna Rao
  • Gopinath Das
  • Sarada Sarangi
  • Debananda Padhy
Original Paper



To evaluate the conjunctival signs in different forms of pseudoexfoliation (PXF) syndrome to identify signs predicting early forms of the disease.


This observational study included patients with newly diagnosed PXF screened in the outpatient department of glaucoma services. Slit lamp photographs were captured in low and high magnification after full dilatation, and details like melanotic pigmentation, vascularity and tortuosity of vessels, scarring if any, presence of pterygium and actinic changes along with basal Schirmer’s test were analysed. Variables in each subtype of PXF previously described by us, namely radial pigmentary (group A), combined pigmentary and classical (group B) and classical PXF (group C), were analysed and compared to age-matched controls. The differences between manifest (group B + C) and unmanifest or early form (group A) were also compared.


A total of 89 eyes from 55 patients (M/F = 38:17, 21 unilateral, 34 bilateral, 48 group A, 10 group B and 31 group C) were compared with 40 controls. The Schirmer’s test was statically lower in patients with manifest PXF (10 ± 1.4 mm) and unmanifest PXF (14 ± 0.6 mm), p < 0.001. The most frequent conjunctival finding (n = 88) in this cohort was lightly pigmented melanotic pigmentation present close to limbus without evidence of any feeder vessels or actinic changes and associated with pupillary ruff atrophy in the same quadrant. Analysing different PXF forms, there was conjunctival melanosis in one or all quadrants in all forms of PXF which was more prominent in manifest PXF, present in a mean 2 ± 1.7 quadrants in unmanifest and manifest PXF, p = 0.01.


Conjunctival melanosis with associated pupillary ruff atrophy in the same quadrant may be the earliest signs of early pseudoexfoliation.


Pseudoexfoliation Melanosis Conjunctiva 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest


Informed consent and Institutional Review Board approval



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aparna Rao
    • 1
  • Gopinath Das
    • 2
  • Sarada Sarangi
    • 2
  • Debananda Padhy
    • 2
  1. 1.Glaucoma ServiceLV Prasad Eye InstitutePatia, BhubaneswarIndia
  2. 2.Glaucoma Diagnostic ServiceLV Prasad Eye InstitutePatia, BhubaneswarIndia

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