Advances in the management of thyroid eye diseases: An overview
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Thyroid eye disease (TED) remains a notorious ailment for both patients and the treating ophthalmologists. Recent years have witnessed considerable research in the immunopathogenic mechanism of TED that has resulted in an expansion and modification of the available management options.
Purpose of this review is to summarise the advances in the management of thyroid ophthalmopathy.
Material and method
A thorough literature search and of the past 10 years web search with words Thyroid ophthalmopathy, recent, advances.
Recent VISA classification and new serum markers seem to have potential to give diagnostic as well as therapeutic guidance, gauge treatment response and even identify risk of disease progression. Majority of TED patients can be managed conservatively due to its self-limiting nature but if indicated, still steroids are the preferable medical therapy; however, there is an increasing consensus towards the use of parenteral form as compared to the oral one on account of greater efficacy with lesser side effects. Steroid sparing medications, for example, rituximab, infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, teprotumumab, tocilizumab, tanshinone, are showing encouraging results and form an area of active research.
Radiation therapy remains as an adjunctive modality in active diseases as a nonmedical treatment for TED with some promising data. Surgical intervention may be required in vision threatening conditions or to counteract the sequel of inflammatory phase. Advances in surgical techniques like stereotactic image-guided balanced orbital decompression with endoscopic approach ensure meticulous dissection with minimal trauma.
KeywordsThyroid ophthalmopathy Thyroid eye disease VISA
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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