International Ophthalmology

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 1879–1886 | Cite as

The analysis of posterior segment findings in term and premature infants using RetCam images

  • Huseyin GursoyEmail author
  • Mustafa Deger Bilgec
  • Nazmiye Erol
  • Hikmet Basmak
  • Ertugrul Colak
Original Paper



To analyze posterior segment findings in term and premature infants using the RetCam image database.


RetCam images taken of infants born between January 2012 and December 2015 were reviewed. Group 1 included infants with posterior segment findings other than retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Group 2 included infants with mild-to-severe ROP. The baseline characteristics, anterior segment findings, and percentage of infants who received treatment were compared among the 2 groups.


In total, 331 out of 3440 infants (9.6%) were included. The major diagnoses in group 1 (n = 75) were retinal hemorrhages in 26, optic nerve pathologies in 14, findings associated with a metabolic disease in 6, ocular tumors in 5, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous in 4, and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy in 4 cases. The mean birth weight (g) (2481.9 ± 700.5 in group 1 vs 1090.5 ± 330.9 in group 2), gestational age (weeks) (35.9 ± 3.4 in group 1 vs 28.2 ± 2.4 in group 2), and postmenstrual age at initial examination (35.9 ± 3.4 in group 1 vs 28.2 ± 2.4 in group 2) were significantly different among the 2 groups (p < 0.001). Thirteen out of 75 cases in group 1 and 124 out of 256 ROP cases received therapy (p < 0.001). Anterior segment pathologies were found in 13.3% of group 1 versus 7.8% of group 2 infants (p = 0.216).


A considerable number of infants suffered from posterior segment disorders other than ROP. The majority of these infants were term babies. Routine fundus screening may be recommended in all newborns to diagnose all posterior segment pathologies other than ROP.


Posterior segment finding RetCam image Term infant Premature infant Retinal hemorrhage Optic nerve pathology Retinopathy of prematurity 



Availability of data

All the authors have full control of all primary data and agree to allow the International Ophthalmology to review their data upon request.

Authors’ contributions

All of the authors meet all four of the following conditions: make substantial contributions to conception and design, and/or acquisition of data, and/or analysis and interpretation of data; participate in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; give final approval of the version to be submitted; agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they do not have any financial conflict of interest related to the study.


  1. 1.
    Gilbert C, Fielder A, Gordillo L, Quinn G, Semiglia R, Visintin P, Zin A, International NO-ROP Group (2005) Characteristics of infants with severe retinopathy of prematurity in countries with low, moderate, and high levels of development: implications for screening programs. Pediatrics 115:e518–e525CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Limburg H, Gilbert C, Hon DN, Dung NC, Hoang TH (2012) Prevalence and causes of blindness in children in Vietnam. Ophthalmology 119:355–361CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Luo R, Liu J, Hu P, Cheng SS, Shi BZ, Zhu JH, Liu L (2014) Results of 779 cases of neonatal fundus screening and risk factors for neonatal fundus diseases (article in Chinese). Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 16:1197–1201PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhao Q, Zhang Y, Yang Y, Li Z, Lin Y, Liu R, Wei C, Ding X (2015) Birth related retinal hemorrhages in healthy full-term newborns and their relationship to maternal, obstetric, and neonatal risk factors. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 253:1021–1025CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jayadev C, Vinekar A, Bauer N, Mangalesh S, Mahendradas P, Kemmanu V, Mallipatna A, Shetty B (2015) Look what else we found-clinically significant abnormalities detected during routine ROP screening. Indian J Ophthalmol 63:373–377CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Callaway NF, Ludwig CA, Blumenkranz MS, Jones JM, Fredrick DR, Moshfeghi DM (2016) Retinal and optic nerve hemorrhages in the newborn infant: one-year results of the newborn eye screen test study. Ophthalmology 123:1043–1052CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wan MJ, VanderVeen DK (2015) Eye disorders in newborn infants (excluding retinopathy of prematurity). Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 100:F264–F269CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vinekar A, Govindaraj I, Jayadev C, Kumar AK, Sharma P, Mangalesh S, Simaldi L, Avadhani K, ShettyB Bauer N (2015) Universal ocular screening of 1021 term infants using wide-field digital imaging in a single public hospital in India—a pilot study. Acta Ophthalmol 93:e372–e376CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine Section on Ophthalmology, American Association of Certified Orthoptists, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, American Academy of Ophthalmology (2003) Eye examination in infants, children, and young adults by pediatricians: organizational principles to guide and define the child health care system and/or improve the health of all children. Ophthalmology 110:860–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Salcone EM, Johnston S, VanderVeen D (2010) Review of the use of digital imaging in retinopathy of prematurity screening. Semin Ophthalmol 25:214–217CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vinekar A, Gilbert C, Dogra M, Kurian M, Shainesh G, Shetty B, Bauer N (2014) The KIDROP model of combining strategies for providing retinopathy of prematurity screening in underserved areas in India using wide-field imaging, tele-medicine, non-physician graders and smart phone reporting. Indian J Ophthalmol 62:41–49CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li LH, Li N, Zhao JY, Fei P, Zhang GM, Mao JB, Rychwalski PJ (2013) Findings of perinatal ocular examination performed on 3573, healthy full-term newborns. Br J Ophthalmol 97:588–591CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ju RH, Ke XY, Zhang JQ, Fu M (2012) Outcomes of 957 preterm neonatal fundus examinations in a Guangzhou NICU through 2008 to 2011. Int J Ophthalmol 5:469–472PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Laghmari M, Skiker H, Handor H et al (2014) Birth-related retinal hemorrhages in the newborn: incidence and relationship with maternal, obstetric and neonatal factors. Prospective study of 2,031 cases (article in French). J Fr Ophtalmol 37:313–319CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Watts P, Maguire S, Kwok T, Talabani B, Mann M, Wiener J, Lawson Z, Kemp A (2013) Newborn retinal hemorrhages: a systemic review. J AAPOS 17:70–78CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Agrawal S, Peters MJ, Adams GG, Pierce CM (2012) Prevalence of retinal hemorrhages in critically ill children. Pediatrics 129:e1388–e1396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Burkhart ZN, Thurber CJ, Chuang AZ, Kumar KS, Davis GH, Kellaway J (2015) Risk factors associated with retinal hemorrhage in suspected abusive head trauma. J AAPOS 19:119–123CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Amador-Patarroyo MJ, Pérez-Rueda MA, Tellez CH (2015) Congenital anomalies of the optic nerve. Saudi J Ophthalmol 29:32–38CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Seyfried TN, Rockwell HE, Heinecke KA, Martin DR, Sena-Esteves M (2014) Ganglioside storage diseases: on the road to management. Adv Neurobiol 9:485–499CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fahnehjelm KT, Ashworth JL, Pitz S, Olsson M, Törnquist AL, Lindahl P, Summers CG (2012) Clinical guidelines for diagnosing and managing ocular manifestations in children with mucopolysaccharidosis. Acta Ophthalmol 90:595–602CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Abramson DH (2014) Retinoblastoma: saving life with vision. Annu Rev Med 65:171–184CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gilmour DF (2015) Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and related retinopathies. Eye (Lond) 29:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shastry BS (2009) Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: congenital malformation of the eye. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 37:884–890CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Martinet V, Dureau P, Bergès O, Caputo G (2010) Vitreoretinal dysplasia masquerading as Peters’ anomaly. Eur J Ophthalmol 20:228–230CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zahavi A, Snir M, Kella YR (2013) Lipemia retinalis: case report and review of the literature. J AAPOS 17:110–111CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gursoy H, Erol N, Bilgec MD, Basmak H, Kutlay O, Aslan H (2015) Bilateral coats’ disease combined with retinopathy of prematurity. Case Rep Ophthalmol Med 2015:364395PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chen CY, Tsao PN, Young C, Peng SS, Tsou KI (2003) Bilateral central retinal vein occlusion with multiple intracerebral hemorrhage in a neonate. Pediatr Neurol 28:400–402CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Brouzas D, Charakidas A, Moschos M, Koutsandrea C, Apostolopoulos M, Baltatzis S (2009) Bevacizumab (Avastin) for the management of anterior chamber neovascularization and neovascular glaucoma. Clin Ophthalmol 3:685–688CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chawla D, Agarwal R, Deorari A, Paul VK, Chandra P, Azad RV (2012) Retinopathy of prematurity. Indian J Pediatr 79:501–509CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Goldman DR, Baumal CR (2013) Dramatic regression of persistent tunica vasculosa lentis associated with retinopathy of prematurity following treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 50:e27–e29CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyEskisehir Osmangazi University Medical FacultyMeselik, EskisehirTurkey
  2. 2.Department of BiostatisticsEskisehir Osmangazi University Medical FacultyMeselik, EskisehirTurkey

Personalised recommendations