Cognitive evaluation of patients with glaucoma and its comparison with individuals with Alzheimer’s disease
- 118 Downloads
To evaluate the cognitive performance of patients with glaucoma and compare it to individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
This is a prospective, cross-sectional and case–control study. All subjects were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its subtests verbal fluency, word list memory, delayed recall of the word list, word list recognition test, Boston naming and constructive praxis from Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD). The results were compared among the groups.
A total of 50 healthy elderly with a mean age of 71.2 ± 5.2 years; 41 patients with glaucoma (72.2 ± 4.4 years); and 21 patients with AD (79.0 ± 7.6 years) were included. There was a reduction in all cognitive assessment tests evaluated, both for patients with glaucoma, and for those with AD compared with controls (p < 0.001 for all). Comparing the patients with glaucoma and AD, it was noted that the last had lower cognitive function (p < 0.001), except for the CERAD tests Boston (p = 0.1) and praxis (p = 0.6). Glaucoma patients, however, presented results of cognitive tests similar to those described for patients with mild AD, including lower values for MMSE (21.9 ± 3.7), Boston (10.6 ± 2.6) and praxis (5.9 ± 2.3).
Glaucoma patients had reduction in cognition when compared to normal individuals. They were similar to the values reported in the literature for patients with mild AD, mostly, and also in some subjects with the presence of advanced AD.
KeywordsCognition Alzheimer’s dementia Glaucoma Prospective studies
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 6.Valenti DA (2010) Alzheimer disease and glaucoma: imaging the biomarkers of neurodegenerative disease. Int J Alzheimer´s Disease 2010:9Google Scholar
- 12.Ribeiro PCC, Oliveira BHD, Cupertino APFB, Neri AL, Yassuda MS (2010) Desempenho de idosos na bateria cognitiva CERAD: relações com variáveis sociodemográficas e saúde percebida. Psicol Reflex Crit 23(1):102–109Google Scholar
- 13.Anderson DR, Patella VM (1999) Automated static perimetry, 2nd edn. Year Book, St LouisGoogle Scholar
- 15.Bertolucci PHF, Okamoto IH, Toniolo J, Ramos LR, Brucki SMD (1998) Desempenho da população brasileira na bateria neuropsicológica do Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD). Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica 25(2):88–97Google Scholar
- 16.Morris JC, Heyman A, Mohs RC, Hughes JP, van Belle G, Fillenbaum G, Mellits ED, Clark C (1989) The Consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer’s disease (CERAD). Part I. Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 39(9):1159–1165CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 17.Arevalo-Rodriguez I, Smailagic N, Roqué IFM, Ciapponi A, Sanchez-Perez E, Giannakou A, Pedraza OL, Bonfill Cosp X, Cullum S (2015) Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for the detection of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010783.pub2
- 18.Nitrini R, Caramelli P, Bottino CM, Damasceno BP, Brucki SM, Anghinah R (2005) Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease in Brazil: diagnostic criteria and auxiliary tests. Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 63(3A):713–719. doi: 10.1590/S0004-282X2005000400033 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 19.Nitrini R, Caramelli P, Bottino CM, Damasceno BP, Brucki SM, Anghinah R (2005) Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease in Brazil: cognitive and functional evaluation. Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 63(3A):720–727. doi: 10.1590/S0004-282X2005000400034 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 20.Brucki SMD, Magaldi RM, Morillo LS (2011) Demências—enfoque multidisciplinar: das bases fisiopatológicas ao diagnóstico e tratamento, vol 1, 1st edn. Atheneu, São Paulo, pp 143–150Google Scholar