Advertisement

International Ophthalmology

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 1839–1844 | Cite as

Cognitive evaluation of patients with glaucoma and its comparison with individuals with Alzheimer’s disease

  • Stephanie Toledo Piza Maurano
  • Delson José da Silva
  • Marcos P. Ávila
  • Leopoldo Magacho
Original Paper
  • 114 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate the cognitive performance of patients with glaucoma and compare it to individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

Methods

This is a prospective, cross-sectional and case–control study. All subjects were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its subtests verbal fluency, word list memory, delayed recall of the word list, word list recognition test, Boston naming and constructive praxis from Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD). The results were compared among the groups.

Results

A total of 50 healthy elderly with a mean age of 71.2 ± 5.2 years; 41 patients with glaucoma (72.2 ± 4.4 years); and 21 patients with AD (79.0 ± 7.6 years) were included. There was a reduction in all cognitive assessment tests evaluated, both for patients with glaucoma, and for those with AD compared with controls (p < 0.001 for all). Comparing the patients with glaucoma and AD, it was noted that the last had lower cognitive function (p < 0.001), except for the CERAD tests Boston (p = 0.1) and praxis (p = 0.6). Glaucoma patients, however, presented results of cognitive tests similar to those described for patients with mild AD, including lower values for MMSE (21.9 ± 3.7), Boston (10.6 ± 2.6) and praxis (5.9 ± 2.3).

Conclusion

Glaucoma patients had reduction in cognition when compared to normal individuals. They were similar to the values reported in the literature for patients with mild AD, mostly, and also in some subjects with the presence of advanced AD.

Keywords

Cognition Alzheimer’s dementia Glaucoma Prospective studies 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Chung SD, Ho JD, Chen CH, Lin HC, Tsai MC, Sheu JJ (2015) Dementia is associated with open-angle glaucoma: a population-based study. Eye (Lond) 29(10):1340–1346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Su CW, Lin CC, Kao CH, Chen HY (2016) Association between glaucoma and the risk of dementia. Medicine (Baltimore) 95(7):e2833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tamura H, Kawakami H, Kanamoto T, Kato T, Yokoyama T, Sasaki K, Izumi Y, Matsumoto M, Mishima HK (2006) High frequency of open-angle glaucoma in Japanese patients with Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Sci 246(1–2):79–83. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2006.02.009 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wostyn P, Audenaert K, De Deyn PP (2008) An abnormal high trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference: a missing link between Alzheimer’s disease and glaucoma? Clin Neurol Neurosurg 110(7):753–754. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2008.05.019 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wostyn P, Audenaert K, De Deyn PP (2009) Alzheimer’s disease and glaucoma: is there a causal relationship? Br J Ophthalmol 93(12):1557–1559. doi: 10.1136/bjo.2008.148064 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Valenti DA (2010) Alzheimer disease and glaucoma: imaging the biomarkers of neurodegenerative disease. Int J Alzheimer´s Disease 2010:9Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clifford RJ Jr, Knopman DS, Trojanowski JQ (2013) Tracking Pathophysiological process in Alzheimer’s disease: an updated hypothetical model of dynamic biomarkers. Lancet Neurol. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70291-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Correa JD, Starling D, Teixeira AL, Caramelli P, Silva TA (2011) Chemokines in CSF of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 69(3):455–459CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ghiso JA, Doudevski I, Ritch R, Rostagno AA (2013) Alzheimer’s disease and glaucoma: mechanistic similarities and differences. J Glaucoma 22(Suppl 5):S36–S38. doi: 10.1097/IJG.0b013e3182934af6 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bayer AU, Ferrari F (2002) Severe progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Eye (Lond) 16(2):209–212. doi: 10.1038/sj/EYE/6700034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yochim BP, Mueller AE, Kane KD, Kahook MY (2012) Prevalence of cognitive impairment, depression, and anxiety symptoms among older adults with glaucoma. J Glaucoma 21(4):250–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ribeiro PCC, Oliveira BHD, Cupertino APFB, Neri AL, Yassuda MS (2010) Desempenho de idosos na bateria cognitiva CERAD: relações com variáveis sociodemográficas e saúde percebida. Psicol Reflex Crit 23(1):102–109Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Anderson DR, Patella VM (1999) Automated static perimetry, 2nd edn. Year Book, St LouisGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR (1975) “Mini-mental state”. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 12(3):189–198CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bertolucci PHF, Okamoto IH, Toniolo J, Ramos LR, Brucki SMD (1998) Desempenho da população brasileira na bateria neuropsicológica do Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD). Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica 25(2):88–97Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morris JC, Heyman A, Mohs RC, Hughes JP, van Belle G, Fillenbaum G, Mellits ED, Clark C (1989) The Consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer’s disease (CERAD). Part I. Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 39(9):1159–1165CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Arevalo-Rodriguez I, Smailagic N, Roqué IFM, Ciapponi A, Sanchez-Perez E, Giannakou A, Pedraza OL, Bonfill Cosp X, Cullum S (2015) Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for the detection of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010783.pub2
  18. 18.
    Nitrini R, Caramelli P, Bottino CM, Damasceno BP, Brucki SM, Anghinah R (2005) Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease in Brazil: diagnostic criteria and auxiliary tests. Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 63(3A):713–719. doi: 10.1590/S0004-282X2005000400033 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nitrini R, Caramelli P, Bottino CM, Damasceno BP, Brucki SM, Anghinah R (2005) Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease in Brazil: cognitive and functional evaluation. Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 63(3A):720–727. doi: 10.1590/S0004-282X2005000400034 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brucki SMD, Magaldi RM, Morillo LS (2011) Demências—enfoque multidisciplinar: das bases fisiopatológicas ao diagnóstico e tratamento, vol 1, 1st edn. Atheneu, São Paulo, pp 143–150Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephanie Toledo Piza Maurano
    • 1
    • 2
  • Delson José da Silva
    • 3
  • Marcos P. Ávila
    • 1
  • Leopoldo Magacho
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyFederal University of Goiás (CEROF-UFG)GoiâniaBrazil
  2. 2.IMEN – Institute of Nuclear MedicineGoiâniaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyFederal University of GoiásGoiâniaBrazil

Personalised recommendations