Advertisement

International Ophthalmology

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 267–271 | Cite as

Refractive errors and ocular biometry components in thalassemia major patients

  • Samira Heydarian
  • Reza JafariEmail author
  • Hosein Karami
Original Paper

Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine and compare biometric and refractive characteristics of thalassemia major patients and normal individuals. In this cross-sectional study, 54 thalassemia major patients were selected randomly as case group, and 54 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were regarded as control group. Refractive errors, corneal curvature and ocular components were measured by autokeratorefractometery and A-scan ultrasonography, respectively. Mean spherical equivalent was −0.0093 ± 0.86 D in thalassemia patients and −0.22 ± 1.33 D in the normal group. The prevalence of myopia, Hyperopia, and emmetropia among thalassemia patients was 16.7, 19.4, and 63.9 %, respectively. While in the control group, 26.9 % were myopic, 25 % were hyperopic, and 48.1 % were emmetropic. The prevalence of astigmatism in case group was 22.2 %, which was not significantly different from that in control group, (27.8 %, p = 0.346). Mean axial length in thalassemia patients was 22.89 ± 0.70 which was significantly lower than that in normal group (23.37 ± 0.91, p = 0.000). The flattest meridian of the cornea (R1) was significantly steeper in thalassemia patients (7.77 ± 0.24) in comparison to normal individuals (7.85 ± 0.28). Although thalassemic patients had significantly smaller axial length and vitreous chamber depth in comparison to normal group, which could be due to their abnormal physical growth, there was no significant difference between the mean of spherical equivalent among two groups. This can be due to their steeper corneal curvature that overcomes the refractive disadvantage of their shorter axial length.

Keywords

Thalassemia major Ocular biometry Refractive error Corneal curvature Axial length 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors wish to thank the staff and patients of the thalassemia research center and Buali Sina Hospital of Mazandaran University of medical science for their cooperation. We also very much appreciate the research Vice Chancellor of Mazandaran University of Medical Science for his sponsorship.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no financial interests or relationships to disclose.

References

  1. 1.
    Braunwald AS, Fauci DI, Kasper DL, Lango JL (2001) Harrison’s principle of intermedicine, 15th edn. Mc Graw Hill Co, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cao A, Galanello R (2010) Beta thalassemia. Genet Med 12:61–76CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bergeron R, Wiegand J, Brittrnham G (1998) HBED: a potential alternative to deferoxamine for iron-chelation therapy. Blood 91:1446–1452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Oliveiri NF, Nathan DG, Macmillan JH et al (1994) Survival in medically treated patients with homozygous beta thalassemia. N Engl J Med 331:574–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kontoghiorghes GH (2008) Ethical issues and risk/benefit assessment of iron chelation: advances with deferiprone/deferoxamine combinations and concern about the safety, efficacy and costs of deferasirox. Hemoglobin 32:1–15CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Galanello R (2003) A thalassemic childs become adult. Rev Clin Exp Hematol 7:4–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Voskaridou E, Terpos E (2004) New insights into the pathophysiology and management of osteoporosis in patients with beta thalassemia. Br J Hematol 127(2):127–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cooley TB, Lee P (1925) A series of cases of splenomegaly in children with anemia and peculiar bone change. Trans Am Pediatr Soc 37:29Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Giardian PJ, Schneider R, Lesser M, Simmons B, Rodriguez A, Gertner J, New M, Hilgartner MW (1995) Abnormal bone metabolism in thalassemia. Endocr Disord Thalass 28(10):39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jensen CE, Tuck SM, Agnew JE, Koneru S, Morris RW, Yardumian S et al (1998) High prevalence of low bone mass in thalassemia major. Br J Hematol 103(4):911–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shamshirsaz AA, Bekheirnia MR, Kamgar M, Pourzahedgilani N, Bouzari N, Habibzadeh M et al (2003) Metabolic and endocrinologic complications in beta-thalassemia major: a multicenter study in Tehran. BMC Endocr Disord 3(1):4CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nowroozzadeh MH, Kalantari Z, Namvar KH, Meshkibaf MH (2011) Ocular refractive and biometric characteristics in patients with thalassemia major. Clin Exp Optom 94(4):36–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karimi M, Jamalian N, Yarmohammadi H, Askarnejad A, Afrasiabi A, Hashemi A (2007) premarital screening for beta thalassemia in southern iran: options for improving the programme. J Med Screen 14(2):62–66CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hashemi Souteh SMB, Akhavan Niaki H, Kousarian M, Aliasgarian A, Bani Hashemi A (2009) frequency of beta-Globin gene mutations in beta thalassemia patients from east of mazandaran. JMUMS 18(67):17–25Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shufelt C, Fraser-Bell S, Ying Lai M et al (2005) Refractive error, ocular biometry, and lens apalescence in an adult population: the los Angelese Latino Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46(12):4450–4460CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wickremasinghe S, Foster PJ, Uranchimeg D et al (2004) Ocular biometry and refraction in Mongolian adults. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45(3):776–783CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wong TY, Foster PJ, Ng NP et al (2001) Variations in ocular biometry in an adult Chinese population in Singapore: tha Tanjong Pager Survey. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42(1):73–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Khalaj M, Sarokhani MR, Mahyar A, Jahan Hashemi H, Godsi F (2008) Assessing refractive errors in Beta-thalassemia Major patients. J Guilan Uni Med Sci 67:42–49Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Limaiem R, Baba A, Bouraoui R, Mghaieth F, EI Marti L (2012) Internal astigmatism with other ocular lesions. J Fr Ophthalmol 35(4):277–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dai Z, Yu R, Gong X, Wang S (2000) The analysis of the axis of corneal astigmatism and total astigmatism in astigmatic patients. Yan Ke Xue Bao 16(4):279–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sathwara N, Marwah K, Jethani J, Patel SH, Shah B (2009) Ocular abnormalities in patients with Beta-thalassemia on transfusion and chelation therapy. AIOC 58(5):434–451Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Athanasiadis I, Konstantinidis A, Kyprianou I, Robinson R, Moschou V, Kouzi-Koliakos K (2007) Rapidly progressing bilateral cataracts in a patient with beta thalassemia and pellagra. J Cataract Refract Surg 33(9):1659–1661CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Taneja R, Malik P, Sharma M, Agravval M (2010) Multiple transfused thalassemia major: ocular manifestations in a hospital-based population. Ir J Ophthalmol 58(2):125–130Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dewan P, Gomber S (2011) Ocular changes in multi transfudsed children with β thalassemia receiving deferoxamine: a case control study. SA J Child Health 5(10):11–14Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wheatherall DJ, Glegg JB (2001) The thalassemia syndromes, 4th edn. Blackwell science Ltd., OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Optometry, School of Paramedical ScienceMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of MedicineMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  3. 3.Thalassemia Research CenterMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran

Personalised recommendations