International Ophthalmology

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 557–568 | Cite as

BOLD fMRI and DTI in strabismic amblyopes following occlusion therapy

  • Shikha Gupta
  • Senthil S. Kumaran
  • Rohit Saxena
  • Sunita Gudwani
  • Vimala Menon
  • Pradeep Sharma
Original Paper


Evaluation of brain cluster activation using the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was sought in strabismic amblyopes. In this hospital-based case–control cross-sectional study, fMRI and DTI were conducted in strabismic amblyopes before initiation of any therapy and after visual recovery following the administration of occlusion therapy. FMRI was performed in 10 strabismic amblyopic subjects (baseline group) and in 5 left strabismic amblyopic children post-occlusion therapy after two-line visual improvement. Ten age-matched healthy children with right ocular dominance formed control group. Structural and functional MRI was carried out on 1.5T MR scanner. The visual task consisted of 8 Hz flickering checkerboard with red dot and occasional green dot. Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI was analyzed using statistical parametric mapping and DTI on NordicIce (NordicNeuroLab) softwares. Reduced occipital activation was elicited when viewing with the amblyopic eye in amblyopes. An ‘ipsilateral to viewing eye’ pattern of calcarine BOLD activation was observed in controls and left amblyopes. Activation of cortical areas associated with visual processing differed in relation to the viewing eye. Following visual recovery on occlusion therapy, enhanced activity in bilateral hemispheres in striate as well as extrastriate regions when viewing with either eye was seen. Improvement in visual acuity following occlusion therapy correlates with hemodynamic activity in amblyopes.


FMRI Strabismic amblyopes DTI Occlusion therapy 



Functional magnetic resonance imaging


Diffusion tensor imaging


Blood oxygen level dependent


Statistical parametric mapping


Lateral geniculate nucleus


Fractional anisotropy


Echo planar imaging


Flickering checkerboard with red dot and occasional green dot


Analysis of variance


Brodmann areas


Right eye


Left eye


Region of interest


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors disclose they have no potential conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee and adheres to the tenets of declaration of Helsinki (1964) and its later amendments.

Ethical standards

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants/their parents included in this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shikha Gupta
    • 1
  • Senthil S. Kumaran
    • 2
  • Rohit Saxena
    • 1
  • Sunita Gudwani
    • 2
  • Vimala Menon
    • 1
  • Pradeep Sharma
    • 1
  1. 1.Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic SciencesAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance & MRI FacilityAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia

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