International Ophthalmology

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 383–400 | Cite as

Ultraviolet light and ocular diseases

  • Jason C. S. Yam
  • Alvin K. H. Kwok


The objective of this study is to review the association between ultraviolet (UV) light and ocular diseases. The data are sourced from the literature search of Medline up to Nov 2012, and the extracted data from original articles, review papers, and book chapters were reviewed. There is a strong evidence that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is associated with the formation of eyelid malignancies [basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)], photokeratitis, climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK), pterygium, and cortical cataract. However, the evidence of the association between UV exposure and development of pinguecula, nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataract, ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), and ocular melanoma remained limited. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is related to UV exposure. It is now suggested that AMD is probably related to visible radiation especially blue light, rather than UV exposure. From the results, it was concluded that eyelid malignancies (BCC and SCC), photokeratitis, CDK, pterygium, and cortical cataract are strongly associated with UVR exposure. Evidence of the association between UV exposure and development of pinguecula, nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataract, OSSN, and ocular melanoma remained limited. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether AMD is related to UV exposure. Simple behaviural changes, appropriate clothing, wearing hats, and UV blocking spectacles, sunglasses or contact lens are effective measures for UV protection.


Ultraviolet light Sunlight Ocular disease Eyelid tumur Pterygium Cataract Age-related macular degeneration Melanoma Sunlight protection 


Conflict of interest



  1. 1.
    McKenzie RL, Bjorn LO, Bais A, Ilyasad M (2003) Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth’s surface. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2(1):5–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization (2002) Global solar UV index: a practical guide. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    McCarty CA, Taylor HR (2002) A review of the epidemiologic evidence linking ultraviolet radiation and cataracts. Dev Ophthalmol 35:21–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Young S, Sands J (1998) Sun and the eye: prevention and detection of light-induced disease. Clin Dermatol 16(4):477–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tse TG, Gilberg SM (1997) Malignant eyelid tumours. In: Krachmer JH, Mannis MJ, Holland EJ (eds) Cornea, vol II. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 601–605Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rigel DS (2008) Cutaneous ultraviolet exposure and its relationship to the development of skin cancer. J Am Acad Dermatol 58(5 Suppl 2):S129–S132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gallagher RP, Hill GB, Bajdik CD, Coldman AJ, Fincham S, McLean DI et al (1995) Sunlight exposure, pigmentation factors, and risk of nonmelanocytic skin cancer. II. Squamous cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol 131(2):164–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rosso S, Zanetti R, Martinez C, Tormo MJ, Schraub S, Sancho-Garnier H et al (1996) The multicentre south European study ‘Helios’. II: different sun exposure patterns in the aetiology of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. Br J Cancer 73(11):1447–1454PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Strickland PT, Vitasa BC, West SK, Rosenthal FS, Emmett EA, Taylor HR (1989) Quantitative carcinogenesis in man: solar ultraviolet B dose dependence of skin cancer in Maryland watermen. J Natl Cancer Inst 81(24):1910–1913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kricker A, Armstrong BK, English DR, Heenan PJ (1995) Does intermittent sun exposure cause basal cell carcinoma? A case–control study in Western Australia. Int J Cancer 60(4):489–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gallagher RP, Hill GB, Bajdik CD, Fincham S, Coldman AJ, McLean DI et al (1995) Sunlight exposure, pigmentary factors, and risk of nonmelanocytic skin cancer. I. Basal cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol 131(2):157–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Naldi L, DiLandro A, D’Avanzo B, Parazzini F (2000) Host-related and environmental risk factors for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma: evidence from an Italian case–control study. J Am Acad Dermatol 42(3):446–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Corona R, Dogliotti E, D’Errico M, Sera F, Iavarone I, Baliva G et al (2001) Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma in a Mediterranean population: role of recreational sun exposure early in life. Arch Dermatol 137(9):1162–1168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Meeran SM, Punathil T, Katiyar SK (2008) IL-12 deficiency exacerbates inflammatory responses in UV-irradiated skin and skin tumors. J Invest Dermatol 128(11):2716–2727PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Benjamin CL, Ananthaswamy HN (2007) p53 and the pathogenesis of skin cancer. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 224(3):241–248PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ouhtit A, Nakazawa H, Armstrong BK, Kricker A, Tan E, Yamasaki H et al (1998) UV-radiation-specific p53 mutation frequency in normal skin as a predictor of risk of basal cell carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 90(7):523–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vainio H, Miller AB, Bianchini F (2000) An international evaluation of the cancer-preventive potential of sunscreens. Int J Cancer 88(5):838–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cameron M (1965) Pterygium throughout the world. Charles C. Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mackenzie FD, Hirst LW, Battistutta D, Green A (1992) Risk analysis in the development of pterygia. Ophthalmology 99(7):1056–1061PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Moran DJ, Hollows FC (1984) Pterygium and ultraviolet radiation: a positive correlation. Br J Ophthalmol 68(5):343–346PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Taylor HR, West SK, Rosenthal FS, Munoz B, Newland HS, Emmett EA (1989) Corneal changes associated with chronic UV irradiation. Arch Ophthalmol 107(10):1481–1484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Norn MS (1982) Spheroid degeneration, pinguecula, and pterygium among Arabs in the Red Sea territory, Jordan. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 60(6):949–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Austin P, Jakobiec FA, Iwamoto T (1983) Elastodysplasia and elastodystrophy as the pathologic bases of ocular pterygia and pinguecula. Ophthalmology 90(1):96–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Coroneo M (2011) Ultraviolet radiation and the anterior eye. Eye Contact Lens 37(4):214–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chui J, Di Girolamo N, Wakefield D, Coroneo MT (2008) The pathogenesis of pterygium: current concepts and their therapeutic implications. Ocul Surf 6(1):24–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nolan TM, DiGirolamo N, Sachdev NH, Hampartzoumian T, Coroneo MT, Wakefield D (2003) The role of ultraviolet irradiation and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor in the pathogenesis of pterygium. Am J Pathol 162(2):567–574PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yang SF, Lin CY, Yang PY, Chao SC, Ye YZ, Hu DN (2009) Increased expression of gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in pterygia and pterygium fibroblasts with disease progression and activation of protein kinase C. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50(10):4588–4596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Coroneo MT, Muller-Stolzenburg NW, Ho A (1991) Peripheral light focusing by the anterior eye and the ophthalmohelioses. Ophthalmic Surg 22(12):705–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hoffman RS, Power WJ (1999) Current options in pterygium management. Int Ophthalmol Clin 39(1):15–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cullen AP (2002) Photokeratitis and other phototoxic effects on the cornea and conjunctiva. Int J Toxicol 21(6):455–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ren H, Wilson G (1994) The effect of ultraviolet-B irradiation on the cell shedding rate of the corneal epithelium. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 72(4):447–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Podskochy A, Gan L, Fagerholm P (2000) Apoptosis in UV-exposed rabbit corneas. Cornea 19(1):99–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Oliva MS, Taylor H (2005) Ultraviolet radiation and the eye. Int Ophthalmol Clin 45(1):1–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gray RH, Johnson GJ, Freedman A (1992) Climatic droplet keratopathy. Surv Ophthalmol 36(4):241–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Klintworth GK (1972) Chronic actinic keratopathy—a condition associated with conjunctival elastosis (pingueculae) and typified by characteristic extracellular concretions. Am J Pathol 67(2):327–348PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Johnson GJ (1981) Aetiology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea in Labrador. Br J Ophthalmol 65(4):270–283PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pe’er J (2005) Ocular surface squamous neoplasia. Ophthalmol Clin North Am 18(1):1–13, viiGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Templeton AC (1967) Tumors of the eye and adnexa in Africans of Uganda. Cancer 20(10):1689–1698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Malik MO, El Sheikh EH (1979) Tumors of the eye and adnexa in the Sudan. Cancer 44(1):293–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sun EC, Fears TR, Goedert JJ (1997) Epidemiology of squamous cell conjunctival cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6(2):73–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pola EC, Masanganise R, Rusakaniko S (2003) The trend of ocular surface squamous neoplasia among ocular surface tumour biopsies submitted for histology from Sekuru Kaguvi Eye Unit, Harare between 1996 and 2000. Cent Afr J Med 49(1–2):1–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lee GA, Hirst LW (1992) Incidence of ocular surface epithelial dysplasia in metropolitan Brisbane. A 10-year survey. Arch Ophthalmol 110(4):525–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Newton R, Ferlay J, Reeves G, Beral V, Parkin DM (1996) Effect of ambient solar ultraviolet radiation on incidence of squamous-cell carcinoma of the eye. Lancet 347(9013):1450–1451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lee GA, Williams G, Hirst LW, Green AC (1994) Risk factors in the development of ocular surface epithelial dysplasia. Ophthalmology 101(2):360–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lee GA, Hirst LW (1995) Ocular surface squamous neoplasia. Surv Ophthalmol 39(6):429–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hiller R, Giacometti L, Yuen K (1977) Sunlight and cataract: an epidemiologic investigation. Am J Epidemiol 105(5):450–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Taylor HR (1980) The environment and the lens. Br J Ophthalmol 64(5):303–310PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hollows F, Moran D (1981) Cataract—the ultraviolet risk factor. Lancet 2(8258):1249–1250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chatterjee A, Milton RC, Thyle S (1982) Prevalence and aetiology of cataract in Punjab. Br J Ophthalmol 66(1):35–42PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Brilliant LB, Grasset NC, Pokhrel RP, Kolstad A, Lepkowski JM, Brilliant GE et al (1983) Associations among cataract prevalence, sunlight hours, and altitude in the Himalayas. Am J Epidemiol 118(2):250–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wojno T, Singer D, Schultz RO (1983) Ultraviolet light, cataracts, and spectacle wear. Ann Ophthalmol 15(8):729–732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Perkins ES (1985) The association between pinguecula, sunlight and cataract. Ophthalmic Res 17(6):325–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Collman GW, Shore DL, Shy CM, Checkoway H, Luria AS (1988) Sunlight and other risk factors for cataracts: an epidemiologic study. Am J Public Health 78(11):1459–1462PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Taylor HR, West SK, Rosenthal FS, Munoz B, Newland HS, Abbey H et al (1988) Effect of ultraviolet radiation on cataract formation. N Engl J Med 319(22):1429–1433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dolezal JM, Perkins ES, Wallace RB (1989) Sunlight, skin sensitivity, and senile cataract. Am J Epidemiol 129(3):559–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bochow TW, West SK, Azar A, Munoz B, Sommer A, Taylor HR (1989) Ultraviolet light exposure and risk of posterior subcapsular cataracts. Arch Ophthalmol 107(3):369–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mohan M, Sperduto RD, Angra SK, Milton RC, Mathur RL, Underwood BA et al (1989) India–US case–control study of age-related cataracts India–US Case–Control Study Group. Arch Ophthalmol 107(5):670–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Leske MC, Chylack LT Jr, Wu SY (1991) The Lens Opacities Case–Control Study. Risk factors for cataract. Arch Ophthalmol 109(2):244–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cruickshanks KJ, Klein BE, Klein R (1992) Ultraviolet light exposure and lens opacities: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am J Public Health 82(12):1658–1662PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wong L, Ho SC, Coggon D, Cruddas AM, Hwang CH, Ho CP et al (1993) Sunlight exposure, antioxidant status, and cataract in Hong Kong fishermen. J Epidemiol Community Health 47(1):46–49PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rosmini F, Stazi MA, Milton RC, Sperduto RD, Pasquini P, Maraini G (1994) A dose–response effect between a sunlight index and age-related cataracts. Italian-American Cataract Study Group. Ann Epidemiol 4(4):266–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hirvela H, Luukinen H, Laatikainen L (1995) Prevalence and risk factors of lens opacities in the elderly in Finland. A population-based study. Ophthalmology 102(1):108–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Javitt JC, Taylor HR (1994) Cataract and latitude. Doc Ophthalmol 88(3–4):307–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Burton M, Fergusson E, Hart A, Knight K, Lary D, Liu C (1997) The prevalence of cataract in two villages of northern Pakistan with different levels of ultraviolet radiation. Eye (Lond) 11(Pt 1):95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    West SK, Duncan DD, Munoz B, Rubin GS, Fried LP, Bandeen-Roche K et al (1998) Sunlight exposure and risk of lens opacities in a population-based study: the Salisbury Eye Evaluation project. J Am Med Assoc 280(8):714–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    McCarty CA, Nanjan MB, Taylor HR (2000) Attributable risk estimates for cataract to prioritize medical and public health action. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41(12):3720–3725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Delcourt C, Carriere I, Ponton-Sanchez A, Lacroux A, Covacho MJ, Papoz L (2000) Light exposure and the risk of cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataracts: the Pathologies Oculaires Liees a l’Age (POLA) study. Arch Ophthalmol 118(3):385–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Katoh N, Jonasson F, Sasaki H, Kojima M, Ono M, Takahashi N et al (2001) Cortical lens opacification in Iceland. Risk factor analysis—Reykjavik Eye Study. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 79(2):154–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Neale RE, Purdie JL, Hirst LW, Green AC (2003) Sun exposure as a risk factor for nuclear cataract. Epidemiology 14(6):707–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pastor-Valero M, Fletcher AE, de Stavola BL, Chaques-Alepuz V (2007) Years of sunlight exposure and cataract: a case–control study in a Mediterranean population. BMC Ophthalmol 7:18PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bergmanson JP, Soderberg PG (1995) The significance of ultraviolet radiation for eye diseases. A review with comments on the efficacy of UV-blocking contact lenses. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 15(2):83–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cruickshanks KJ, Klein R, Klein BE (1993) Sunlight and age-related macular degeneration. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol 111(4):514–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Roduit R, Schorderet DF (2008) MAP kinase pathways in UV-induced apoptosis of retinal pigment epithelium ARPE19 cells. Apoptosis 13(3):343–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Youn BHCAP, Chou BR, Sivak JG (2010) Phototoxicity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation: evaluation of UV-blocking efficiency of intraocular lens (IOL) materials using retinal cell culture and in vitro. Open Toxicol J 4:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Chalam KV, Khetpal V, Rusovici R, Balaiya S (2011) A review: role of ultraviolet radiation in age-related macular degeneration. Eye Contact Lens 37(4):225–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hyman LG, Lilienfeld AM, Ferris FL 3rd, Fine SL (1983) Senile macular degeneration: a case–control study. Am J Epidemiol 118(2):213–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    West SK, Rosenthal FS, Bressler NM, Bressler SB, Munoz B, Fine SL et al (1989) Exposure to sunlight and other risk factors for age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol 107(6):875–879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Taylor HR, West S, Munoz B, Rosenthal FS, Bressler SB, Bressler NM (1992) The long-term effects of visible light on the eye. Arch Ophthalmol 110(1):99–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Risk factors for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The Eye Disease Case–Control Study Group. Arch Ophthalmol 1992 110(12):1701–1708Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Darzins P, Mitchell P, Heller RF (1997) Sun exposure and age-related macular degeneration. An Australian case–control study. Ophthalmology 104(5):770–776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Delcourt C, Carriere I, Ponton-Sanchez A, Fourrey S, Lacroux A, Papoz L (2001) Light exposure and the risk of age-related macular degeneration: the Pathologies Oculaires Liees a l’Age (POLA) study. Arch Ophthalmol 119(10):1463–1468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    McCarty CA, Mukesh BN, Fu CL, Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Taylor HR (2001) Risk factors for age-related maculopathy: the Visual Impairment Project. Arch Ophthalmol 119(10):1455–1462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Khan JC, Shahid H, Thurlby DA, Bradley M, Clayton DG, Moore AT et al (2006) Age related macular degeneration and sun exposure, iris colour, and skin sensitivity to sunlight. Br J Ophthalmol 90(1):29–32PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sui GY, Liu GC, Liu GY, Gao YY, Deng Y, Wang WY et al (2013) Is sunlight exposure a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Ophthalmol 97(4):389–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wang JJ, Klein R, Smith W, Klein BE, Tomany S, Mitchell P (2003) Cataract surgery and the 5-year incidence of late-stage age-related maculopathy: pooled findings from the Beaver Dam and Blue Mountains eye studies. Ophthalmology 110(10):1960–1967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sparrow JR, Miller AS, Zhou J (2004) Blue light-absorbing intraocular lens and retinal pigment epithelium protection in vitro. J Cataract Refract Surg 30(4):873–878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Iu LP, Kwok AK (2007) An update of treatment options for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Hong Kong Med J 13(6):460–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ajani UA, Seddon JM, Hsieh CC, Egan KM, Albert DM, Gragoudas ES (1992) Occupation and risk of uveal melanoma. An exploratory study. Cancer 70(12):2891–2900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Damato B (2004) Developments in the management of uveal melanoma. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 32(6):639–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jhappan C, Noonan FP, Merlino G (2003) Ultraviolet radiation and cutaneous malignant melanoma. Oncogene 22(20):3099–3112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Shah CP, Weis E, Lajous M, Shields JA, Shields CL (2005) Intermittent and chronic ultraviolet light exposure and uveal melanoma: a meta-analysis. Ophthalmology 112(9):1599–1607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gallagher RP, Elwood JM, Rootman J, Spinelli JJ, Hill GB, Threlfall WJ et al (1985) Risk factors for ocular melanoma: Western Canada Melanoma Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 74(4):775–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tucker MA, Shields JA, Hartge P, Augsburger J, Hoover RN, Fraumeni JF Jr (1985) Sunlight exposure as risk factor for intraocular malignant melanoma. N Engl J Med 313(13):789–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Seddon JM, Gragoudas ES, Glynn RJ, Egan KM, Albert DM, Blitzer PH (1990) Host factors, UV radiation, and risk of uveal melanoma. A case–control study. Arch Ophthalmol 108(9):1274–1280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Holly EA, Aston DA, Char DH, Kristiansen JJ, Ahn DK (1990) Uveal melanoma in relation to ultraviolet light exposure and host factors. Cancer Res 50(18):5773–5777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Holly EA, Aston DA, Ahn DK, Smith AH (1996) Intraocular melanoma linked to occupations and chemical exposures. Epidemiology 7(1):55–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pane AR, Hirst LW (2000) Ultraviolet light exposure as a risk factor for ocular melanoma in Queensland, Australia. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 7(3):159–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Guenel P, Laforest L, Cyr D, Fevotte J, Sabroe S, Dufour C et al (2001) Occupational risk factors, ultraviolet radiation, and ocular melanoma: a case–control study in France. Cancer Causes Control 12(5):451–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Vajdic CM, Kricker A, Giblin M, McKenzie J, Aitken J, Giles GG et al (2002) Sun exposure predicts risk of ocular melanoma in Australia. Int J Cancer 101(2):175–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lutz JM, Cree I, Sabroe S, Kvist TK, Clausen LB, Afonso N et al (2005) Occupational risks for uveal melanoma results from a case–control study in nine European countries. Cancer Causes Control 16(4):437–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Bergmanson JP, Sheldon TM (1997) Ultraviolet radiation revisited. CLAO J 23(3):196–204PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyHong Kong Sanatorium and HospitalHong KongPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations