International Ophthalmology

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 435–445 | Cite as

Controversies in ocular trauma classification and management: review

  • Rupesh Agrawal
  • Mehul Shah
  • Kamiar Mireskandari
  • Goh Kong Yong
Controversies in Ophthalmology


Ocular trauma is a topic of unresolved controversies and there are continuous controversial and debatable management strategies for open-globe injuries (OGIs). International classification of ocular trauma proposed almost 15 years ago needs to be reviewed and to be more robust in predicting the outcome in the setting of OGIs. Anterior segment trauma involves controversies related to patching for corneal abrasion, corneal laceration repair, and medical management of hyphema. Timing of cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation in the setting of trauma is still debated worldwide. There are unresolved issues regarding the management of OGIs involving the posterior segment. Timing of vitrectomy has been and will continue to be debated by proponents of early versus delayed intervention. The use of prophylactic cryotherapy and scleral buckle is still practiced differently throughout the world. The role of intravitreal antibiotics in posterior segment trauma in the absence of infection is still debated. Similarly, the use of vitrectomy versus vitreous tap in the setting of traumatic endophthalmitis is not fully resolved. In optic neuropathy, the role of intravenous methylprednisolone versus conservative management is always debated and still there are no evidence-based guidelines about the beneficial role of pulse steroid therapy. The role of optic canal decompression in the setting of acute traumatic optic neuropathy is also not conclusive. Orbital and adnexal trauma has been shown to adversely affect the outcome of OGI patients but both lids and orbital injury are not taken as preoperative variables in international ocular trauma classification. The timing of intervention in blow-out fracture is still debated. The pediatric age group, owing to the high risk of amblyopia and intraocular inflammation as well as strong vitreoretinal adhesions, has to be managed by different principles. Although the risk of sympathetic ophthalmia is very rare, it is always one of the key debated issues while managing traumatized eyes with no light perception vision. Prospective, controlled clinical studies are not possible in the OGI setting and this article reviews pertinent data regarding these management issues and controversies, and provides recommendations for treatment based on the available published data and the authors’ personal experience.


Ocular trauma Controversies Traumatic optic neuropathy Traumatic cataract Posterior segment ocular trauma Classification of ocular trauma Pediatric ocular trauma 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rupesh Agrawal
    • 1
  • Mehul Shah
    • 2
  • Kamiar Mireskandari
    • 3
  • Goh Kong Yong
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyTan Tock Seng HospitalSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Drashti Netralaya and Dahod Tribal, Community Eye Care CenterOphthalmic Mission TrustDahodIndia
  3. 3.The Hospital for Sick Children & University of TorontoTorontoCanada

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