Ocular findings in human immunodeficiency virus patients in Washington, DC
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The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of ocular diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Washington, DC in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This was a cross-sectional study of patients with HIV who were seen by the ophthalmology consultation service between September 2003 and May 2011 at a single academic institution in Washington, DC. Medical history and ophthalmic findings were reviewed. Patients with complete laboratory data dated within 3 months of their presenting eye examination were included. Descriptive statistics were performed. The records of 151 patients were included in the final analysis. All patients had complete laboratory data dated within 3 months of their presenting eye examination. Sixty-eight (45 %) patients and fifty-eight (50 %) of those with a diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were diagnosed with an HIV-related ophthalmic disease. The leading anterior segment disease was herpes zoster ophthalmicus and the leading posterior segment disease was HIV retinopathy. Of the 151 included patients, 78 (52 %) were receiving HAART at the time of the examination. Thirty-one (42 %) of those not receiving HAART were diagnosed with an HIV-related ophthalmic disease. In this study, we find that the overall prevalence of ocular disease has decreased since the introduction of HAART. However, HIV patients continue to be predisposed to developing ophthalmic disease at higher rates than the general population. Visual dysfunction remains an important source of morbidity in HIV patients, particularly in those with AIDS. Measures for improvement include increased communication between infectious disease specialists and ophthalmologists to ensure adherence to HAART and routine eye examinations.
KeywordsHIV Ophthalmology Eye disease HAART
The authors have no proprietary or commercial interests in any of the material discussed in this article.
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