International Ophthalmology

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 161–167

Changes in foveal thickness after vitrectomy for macular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion and intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor

  • Makiko Yamasaki
  • Hidetaka Noma
  • Hideharu Funatsu
  • Atsushi Minamoto
  • Tatsuya Mimura
  • Katsunori Shimada
  • Hidetoshi Yamashita
  • Yoshiaki Kiuchi
Original Paper

Abstract

Purpose To examine the outcome of vitrectomy for macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and determine the relationship between the severity of macular edema and the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the vitreous fluid. Design Prospective observational case series. Patients and Methods Thirty-four consecutive patients (34 eyes) with macular edema associated with BRVO underwent vitrectomy. Retinal thickness was examined using optical coherence tomography. VEGF and IL-6 levels in the vitreous fluid were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The patients were followed for 6 months and longer after surgery. Results Visual acuity and the retinal thickness at 6 months after operation were significantly improved (P = 0.0042 and P < 0.0001, respectively). There was a significant positive correlation between the vitreous levels of VEGF and improved level of the severity of macular edema. The vitreous levels of VEGF were significantly higher in patients who showed greater improvement in the severity of macular edema (r = 0.4277, P = 0.0116). The vitreous levels of IL-6 were not significantly correlated with improvement in the severity of macular edema (r = 0.1996, P = 0.2578). Conclusion Vitrectomy appears effective for treatment of macular edema with BRVO. A higher VEGF level in the vitreous fluid may be associated with greater improvement of macular edema with BRVO.

Keywords

BRVO Macular edema Vitrectomy VEGF IL-6 

References

  1. 1.
    Michels RG, Gass JD (1974) The natural course of retinal branch vein obstruction. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 78:166–177Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gutman FA, Zegarra H (1974) The natural course of temporal retinal branch vein occlusion. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 78:178–192Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tranos PG, Wickremasinghe SS, Stangos NT et al (2004) Macular edema. Surv Ophthalmol 49:470–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Amirikia A, Scott IU, Murray TG et al (2001) Outcomes of vitreoretinal surgery for complications of branch retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 108:372–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tachi N, Hashimoto Y, Ogino N (1999) Vitrectomy for macular edema combined with retinal vein occlusion. Doc Ophthalmol 97:465–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Saika S, Tanaka T, Miyamoto T et al (2001) Surgical posterior vitreous detachment combined with gas/air tamponade for treating macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion: retinal tomography and visual outcome. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 239:729–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Funatsu H, Yamashita H, Noma H et al (2002) Increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 in the aqueous humor of diabetics with macular edema. Am J Ophthalmol 133:70–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Funatsu H, Yamashita H, Ikeda T et al (2003) Vitreous levels of interleukin-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor are related to diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology 110:1690–1696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Noma H, Funatsu H, Yamasaki M et al (2005) Pathogenesis of macular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion and intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6. Am J Ophthalmol 140:256–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Noma H, Minamoto A, Funatsu H et al (2006) Intravitreal levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 are correlated with macular edema in branch retinal vein occlusion. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 244:309–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Arnarsson A, Stefansson E (2000) Laser treatment and the mechanism of edema reduction in branch retinal vein occlusion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:877–879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Otani T, Kishi S, Maruyama Y (1999) Patterns of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography. Am J Ophthalmol 127:688–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Otani T, Kishi S (2000) Tomographic assessment of vitreous surgery for diabetic macular edema. Am J Ophthalmol 129:487–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    The Branch Vein Occlusion Study Group (1984) Argon laser photocoagulation for macular edema in branch vein occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol 98:271–282Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    The Branch Vein Occlusion Study Group (1986) Argon laser scatter photocoagulation for prevention of neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage in branch vein occlusion. A randomized clinical trial. Arch Ophthalmol 104:34–41Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Miller SD (1985) Argon laser photocoagulation for macular edema in branch vein occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol 99:218–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Senger DR, Galli SJ, Dvorak AM et al (1983) Tumor cells secrete a vascular permeability factor that promotes accumulation of ascites fluid. Science 219:983–985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cohen T, Nahari D, Cerem LW (1996) Interleukin 6 induces the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. J Biol Chem 271:736–741PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maruo N, Morita I, Shirao M et al (1992) IL-6 increases endothelial permeability in vitro. Endocrinology 131:710–714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Behzadian MA, Wang XL, Al-Shabrawey M et al (1998) Effects of hypoxia on glial cell expression of angiogenesis-regulating factors VEGF and TGF-beta. Glia 24:216–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tolentino MJ, Miller JW, Gragoudas ES et al (1996) Intravitreous injections of vascular endothelial growth factor produce retinal ischemia and microangiopathy in an adult primate. Ophthalmology 103:1820–1828PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Makiko Yamasaki
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hidetaka Noma
    • 3
    • 4
  • Hideharu Funatsu
    • 3
  • Atsushi Minamoto
    • 5
  • Tatsuya Mimura
    • 6
  • Katsunori Shimada
    • 7
  • Hidetoshi Yamashita
    • 8
  • Yoshiaki Kiuchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Graduate School of Biomedical SciencesHiroshima UniversityMinami-kuJapan
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyMazda Hospital, Mazda Motor CorporationAkigunJapan
  3. 3.Department of Ophthalmology, Yachiyo Medical CenterTokyo Women’s Medical UniversityYachiyoJapan
  4. 4.Department of OphthalmologyHiroshima Prefectural HospitalMinami-kuJapan
  5. 5.Minamoto Eye ClinicMinami-kuJapan
  6. 6.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of Tokyo Graduate School of MedicineBunkyo-kuJapan
  7. 7.Department of BiostatisticsSTATZ Institute Inc.Shinjuku-kuJapan
  8. 8.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual ScienceYamagata University School of MedicineYamagata-shiJapan

Personalised recommendations