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International Ophthalmology

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 209–222 | Cite as

Graft failure IV. Immunologic mechanisms of corneal transplant rejection

  • Eva-Marie Chong
  • M. Reza Dana
Original paper

Abstract

Corneal transplantation is the oldest and the most common form of solid tissue transplantation in humans. Immunologic graft rejection is one of the main causes of short and long-term graft failure. Rejection involves donor tissue recognition and destruction by allo-specific immune cells of the recipient. This review outlines (1) the immunobiology of transplantation, with reference to ocular immune privilege, (2) factors that confer “high-risk” status to a graft and (3) the pathophysiologic mechanisms of corneal transplant rejection.

Keywords

Allosensitization Corneal transplantation Immunobiology Immunologic graft rejection Ocular immune privilege Pathophysiologic mechanisms 

Abbreviations

ACAID

Anterior chamber-associated immune deviation

APCs

Antigen presenting cells

α-MSH

Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone

CALT

Conjunctival associated lymphoid tissue

CCTS

Collaborative corneal transplantation studies

CD

Cluster differentiation

CGRP

Calcitonin-gene related peptide

CRP

Complement regulatory proteins

CTLA 4 Ig

Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 to human immunoglobulin

DAF

Decay accelerating factor

DCs

Dendritic cells

DTH

Delayed type hypersensitivity

FasL

Fas ligand

HLA

Human leukocyte antigen

ICAM

Intercellular adhesion molecule

IDO

Indoleamine dioxygenase

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

Ig

Immunoglobulin

IL-10

Interleukin 10

IFN

Interferon

LCs

Langerhans cells

LYVE-1

Lymphatic endothelium-specific hyaluronan receptor

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

MIF

Macrophage inhibitory factor

MIP

Macrophage inflammatory protein

NKT

Natural Killer T cells

PD-L

Programmed death ligand

RANTES

Regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted

SOM

Somatostatin

TCR

T cell receptors

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor-β

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

VIP

Vasoactive intestinal peptide

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by a grant (RO1-12963) from the National Institutes of Health, awarded to Dr Dana.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cornea Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Department of OphthalmologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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