The Ethics of Conspiracy Theorizing
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Philosophers have not been particularly interested in conspiracy theories. The few contributions that have appeared have concerned mainly epistemic questions. Following Karl Popper, who famously criticized the conspiracy theory of society in his Conjectures and Refutations, many authors have argued that conspiracy theories tend to be unwarranted.1 The list of alleged sins is long. It has been claimed that many conspiracy theories can be rejected simply by pointing out that the supposed conspirators did not have connections to each other or were too stupid to have designed such a vicious plan or lacked technological and material resources to carry it through. Furthermore, according to some critics, conspiracy theories tend to be irrefutable, appeal to unlikely motives, include explanatory gaps, conflict observed facts they grant, provide failed predictions, suffer from internal inconsistency, and attribute omnipotence to the alleged conspirators.2Philosophers who have...