Brachychiton populneus as a novel source of bioactive ingredients with therapeutic effects: antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, anti-inflammatory properties and LC–ESI-MS profile
- 38 Downloads
Brachychiton populneus is one of the unexploited Tunisian plants, traditionally eaten as food and used for medicinal purposes. The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical components of the seeds, leaves and flowers from B. populneus using three different solvents and to explore their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Further, this study was focused on the identification of phenolic compounds from the most active extract. In vitro, all extracts showed strong antioxidant property by DPPH, ferrous ion chelating and lipid peroxidation-inhibiting assays, noticeable anti-inflammatory activity by protein denaturation and membrane stabilization methods and important neuroprotective effects by acetylcholinesterase inhibitory test. In vivo, B. populneus (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant dose–response anti-inflammatory effects against carrageenan-induced paw edema. With respect to the phenolic profile, the leaf methanol extract presented eight phenolic acids, one flavone and four flavonoids, with salvianolic acid B (820.3 mg/kg), caffeic acid (224.03 mg/kg), syringic acid (100.2 mg/kg) and trans-ferulic acid (60.02 mg/kg) as the major compounds. The results of the current study suggested that B. populneus could be a precious source of health-benefitting biomolecules and may be developed as new antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and AChE inhibitors.
KeywordsBrachychiton populneus Anti-inflammatory Antioxidant activity Neuroprotective activity LC–ESI-MS
The authors would like to thank Mr. Zied Tlili, a teacher of English for Specific Purposes at the Higher Institute of Business Administration of Gafsa, Tunisia, for high-quality language editing which significantly contributed to the completion of this work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflict of interest.
- Abdel-Megeed A, Salem MZ, Ali HM, Gohar YM (2013) Brachychiton diversifolius as a source of natural products: antibacterial and antioxidant evaluation of extracts of wood branches. J Pure Appl Microbiol 7:1843–1850Google Scholar
- Batool R, Khan MR, Zai JA, Ali S, Maryam S, Naz I, Bibi S (2018) Brachychiton populneus (Schott & Endl.) R. Br. ameliorate carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress through regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and inflammatory mediators in Sprague–Dawley male rats. Biomed Pharmacother 107:1601–1610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chan SW, Lee CY, Yap CF, Mustapha WAW, Ho CW (2009) Optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels. Int Food Res J 16:203–213Google Scholar
- Corina D, Delia M, Ersilia A, Claudia F, Istvan O, Andrea B, Oana C (2019) Phytochemical characterization and evaluation of the antimicrobial, antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic potential of Ephedra alata Decne. Hydroalcoholic extract against the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Molecules 24:13Google Scholar
- Irawaty W, Ayucitra A (2018) Assessment on antioxidant and in vitro antidiabetes activities of different fractions of Citrus hystrix peel. Int Food Res J 25:2467–2477Google Scholar
- Mohammed A, Liman ML, Atiku MK (2013) Chemical composition of the methanolic leaf and stem bark extracts of Senna siamea Lam. J. Pharmacogn Phytother 5:98–100Google Scholar
- Oboh G, Agunloye OM, Akinyemi AJ, Ademiluyi AO, Adefegha SA (2013) Comparative study on the inhibitory effect of caffeic and chlorogenic acids on key enzymes linked to Alzheimer’s disease and some pro-oxidant induced oxidative stress in rats’ brain-in vitro. Neurochem Res 38:413–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ojha D, Mukherjee H, Mondal S, Jena A, Dwivedi VP, Mondal KC, Malhotra B, Samanta A, Chattopadhyay D (2014) Anti-inflammatory activity of Odina wodier Roxb, an Indian folk remedy, through inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. PLoS ONE 9:e104939PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Parejo I, Jauregui O, Sánchez-Rabaneda F, Viladomat F, Bastida J, Codina C (2004) Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) using liquid chromatography–negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 52:3679–3687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sadique J, Al-Rqobahs WA, Bughaith EI, Gindi AR (1989) The bioactivity of certain medicinal plants on the stabilization of RBC membranesystem. Fitoterapia 60:525–532Google Scholar
- Salem MZM, Ali HM, Mansour MM (2014) Fatty acid methyl esters from air-dried wood, bark, and leaves of Brachychiton diversifolius R. Br: antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. BioResources 9:3835–3845Google Scholar
- Sofowora A (1996) Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Karthala, Paris, p 380Google Scholar
- Thabet AA, Youssef FS, El-Shazly M, El-Beshbishy HA, Singab ANB (2018) Validation of the antihyperglycaemic and hepatoprotective activity of the flavonoid rich fraction of Brachychiton rupestris using in vivo experimental models and molecular modelling. Food Chem Toxicol 114:302–310PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Wu CT, Deng JS, Huang WC, Shieh PC, Chung MI, Huang GJ (2019) Salvianolic acid C against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury by attenuating inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis through inhibition of the Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. Oxid Med Cell Longev. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9056845 Google Scholar