Anti-inflammatory role of TPCA-1 encapsulated nanosomes in porcine chondrocytes against TNF-α stimulation

  • Fazal Ur Rehman Bhatti
  • Karen A. HastyEmail author
  • Hongsik ChoEmail author
Original Article


In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that immunonanosomes carrying the drug [5-(p-Fluorophenyl)-2-ureido]thiophene-3-carboxamide (TPCA-1) will help in reducing nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)-associated inflammation in porcine chondrocytes against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced stress. The nanosomes were tagged with monoclonal anti-type II collagen (MabCII) antibody to specifically target the exposed type II collagen in cartilage matrix. TPCA-1 at a concentration of 10 µM significantly reduced expression of the matrix-degrading enzyme, Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and blocked the p65 nuclear translocation. In comparison to the TPCA-1 solution alone, the TPCA-1 nanosomes were found to be more effective in reducing the cellular toxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in chondrocytes treated with TNF-α. In addition, TPCA-1 nanosomes were more effective in reducing the gene expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha (HIF-2α) that in turn is associated with the regulation of MMP-13 gene. TPCA-1 nanosomes significantly reduced expression of both these genes. The data also showed that TPCA-1 did not attenuate the down-regulated gene expression levels of anabolic genes aggrecan (ACAN) and collagen type II alpha (COL2A1). In conclusion, this study showed that TPCA-1 nanosomes carrying a dose of 10 µM TPCA-1 can effectively increase the survival of cultured porcine chondrocytes against TNF-α-induced stress. The findings of this study could be used to develop nanosome-based drug delivery systems (DDSs) for animal model of OA. Moreover, the approach presented here can be further utilized in other studies for targeted delivery of the drug of interest at a cellular level.


Nanosomes Inflammation Chondrocytes TNF-α TPCA-1 p65 translocation 


Author contributions

FB and HC: designed and performed the experiments. FB and HC: performed the statistical analysis. FB and HC: wrote the manuscript. HC and KH: critically reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


This work was supported by grants from the Arthritis Foundation (Discovery award; H. Cho) and Oxnard Foundation (Medical Research; H. Cho). This research also supported by a VA Merit Review award and VA Research Career Scientist Award (K. Hasty) from the Department of Veterans Affairs.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


  1. Akbarzadeh A et al (2013) Liposome: classification, preparation, and applications. Nanoscale Res Lett 8:102. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Blanco FJ, Lotz M (1995) IL-1-induced nitric oxide inhibits chondrocyte proliferation via PGE2. Exp Cell Res 218:319–325. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Blanco FJ, Ochs RL, Schwarz H, Lotz M (1995) Chondrocyte apoptosis induced by nitric oxide. Am J Pathol 146:75–85PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Cho H, Stuart JM, Magid R, Danila DC, Hunsaker T, Pinkhassik E, Hasty KA (2014) Theranostic immunoliposomes for osteoarthritis. Nanomedicine 10:619–627. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cho H, Pinkhassik E, David V, Stuart JM, Hasty KA (2015a) Detection of early cartilage damage using targeted nanosomes in a post-traumatic osteoarthritis mouse model. Nanomedicine 11:939–946. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cho H, Walker A, Williams J, Hasty KA (2015b) Study of osteoarthritis treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs: cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor and steroids. Biomed Res Int. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Friedmann-Morvinski D, Narasimamurthy R, Xia Y, Myskiw C, Soda Y, Verma IM (2016) Targeting NF-kappaB in glioblastoma: a therapeutic approach. Sci Adv 2:e1501292. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Goldring MB et al (2011) Roles of inflammatory and anabolic cytokines in cartilage metabolism: signals and multiple effectors converge upon MMP-13 regulation in osteoarthritis. Eur Cell Mater 21:202–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Greene MA, Loeser RF (2015) Aging-related inflammation in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthr Cartil 23:1966–1971. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Harisa GI, Badran MM, Alanazi FK, Attia SM (2017) An overview of nanosomes delivery mechanisms: trafficking, orders, barriers and cellular effects. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 46(4):669–679. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hua S, Wu SY (2013) The use of lipid-based nanocarriers for targeted pain therapies. Front Pharmacol 4:143. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Jasin HE, Noyori K, Takagi T, Taurog JD (1993) Characteristics of anti-type II collagen antibody binding to articular cartilage. Arthritis Rheum 36:651–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jeng C-C et al (2011) Dynamic probing of nanoparticle stability in vivo: a liposomal model assessed using in situ microdialysis and optical imaging. J Nanomaterials 2011:8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnson CI, Argyle DJ, Clements DN (2016) In vitro models for the study of osteoarthritis. Vet J 209:40–49. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kaja S, Payne AJ, Naumchuk Y, Koulen P (2017) Quantification of lactate dehydrogenase for cell viability testing using cell lines and primary cultured astrocytes. Curr Protoc Toxicol. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Kishore N et al (2003) A selective IKK-2 inhibitor blocks NF-kappa B-dependent gene expression in interleukin-1 beta-stimulated synovial fibroblasts. J Biol Chem 278:32861–32871. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Li H, Wang D, Yuan Y, Min J (2017) New insights on the MMP-13 regulatory network in the pathogenesis of early osteoarthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 19:248. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Lieberthal J, Sambamurthy N, Scanzello CR (2015) Inflammation in joint injury and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Osteoarthr Cartil 23:1825–1834. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Maguire O, Collins C, O’Loughlin K, Miecznikowski J, Minderman H (2011) Quantifying nuclear p65 as a parameter for NF-kappaB activation: correlation between imagestream cytometry, microscopy, and Western blot. Cytometry A 79:461–469. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Nan J et al (2014) TPCA-1 is a direct dual inhibitor of STAT3 and NF-kappaB and regresses mutant EGFR-associated human non-small cell lung cancers. Mol Cancer Ther 13:617–629. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Podolin PL et al (2005) Attenuation of murine collagen-induced arthritis by a novel, potent, selective small molecule inhibitor of IkappaB Kinase 2, TPCA-1 (2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-thiophenecarboxamide), occurs via reduction of proinflammatory cytokines and antigen-induced T cell proliferation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 312:373–381. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Prince DE, Greisberg JK (2015) Nitric oxide-associated chondrocyte apoptosis in trauma patients after high-energy lower extremity intra-articular fractures. J Orthop Traumatol 16:335–341. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Ricciotti E, FitzGerald GA (2011) Prostaglandins and inflammation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 31:986–1000. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Rigoglou S, Papavassiliou AG (2013) The NF-kappaB signalling pathway in osteoarthritis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 45:2580–2584. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Rivard J, James A, Wegner G, Reagan K (2014) Modulating the tumor necrosis factor-α induced inflammatory response in human colonic epithelial cells by inhibiting NF-κB signaling (CCR5P.258). J Immunol 192:181.112Google Scholar
  26. Ryu JH, Shin Y, Huh YH, Yang S, Chun CH, Chun JS (2012) Hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha regulates Fas-mediated chondrocyte apoptosis during osteoarthritic cartilage destruction. Cell Death Differ 19:440–450. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Saito T, Kawaguchi H (2010) HIF-2alpha as a possible therapeutic target of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthr Cartil 18:1552–1556. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Schnyder A, Huwyler J (2005) Drug transport to brain with targeted liposomes. NeuroRx 2:99–107. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Schuerwegh AJ, Dombrecht EJ, Stevens WJ, Van Offel JF, Bridts CH, De Clerck LS (2003) Influence of pro-inflammatory (IL-1 alpha, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4) cytokines on chondrocyte function. Osteoarthr Cartil 11:681–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sercombe L, Veerati T, Moheimani F, Wu SY, Sood AK, Hua S (2015) Advances and challenges of liposome assisted drug delivery. Front Pharmacol 6:286. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. TenBroek EM, Yunker L, Nies MF, Bendele AM (2016) Randomized controlled studies on the efficacy of antiarthritic agents in inhibiting cartilage degeneration and pain associated with progression of osteoarthritis in the rat. Arthritis Res Ther 18:24. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Tilstra JS, Gaddy DF, Zhao J, Dave SH, Niedernhofer LJ, Plevy SE, Robbins PD (2014) Pharmacologic IKK/NF-kappaB inhibition causes antigen presenting cells to undergo TNFalpha dependent ROS-mediated programmed cell death. Sci Rep 4:3631. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Valovka T, Hottiger MO (2011) p65 controls NF-kappaB activity by regulating cellular localization of IkappaBbeta. Biochem J 434:253–263. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. van der Kraan PM, van den Berg WB (2012) Chondrocyte hypertrophy and osteoarthritis: role in initiation and progression of cartilage degeneration? Osteoarthr Cartil 20:223–232. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Wojdasiewicz P, Poniatowski LA, Szukiewicz D (2014) The role of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Mediators Inflamm 2014:561459. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhao Y, Feng G, Wang Y, Yue Y, Zhao W (2014) A key mediator, PTX3, of IKK/IkappaB/NF-kappaB exacerbates human umbilical vein endothelial cell injury and dysfunction. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 7:7699–7707PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhong Z, Ji Q, Zhang JA (2010) Analysis of cationic liposomes by reversed-phase HPLC with evaporative light-scattering detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal 51:947–951. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of Tennessee Health Science Center, Research 151, VAMCMemphisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of Tennessee Health Science Center-Campbell Clinic, Research 151, VAMCMemphisUSA
  3. 3.VA Medical CenterMemphisUSA

Personalised recommendations