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Phytofabricated silver nanoparticles of Phyllanthus emblica attenuated diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic cancer via knock-down oxidative stress and inflammation

  • Deepika Singh
  • Ekta Yadav
  • Neha Falls
  • Vikas Kumar
  • Manvendra Singh
  • Amita Verma
Original Article
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

Oxidative stress and inflammation play a pivotal role in the expansion and progression of hepatic cancer. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery can quickly enhance the restorative capability of hepatic cancer. Silver nanoparticles synthesized from plant source are of great importance due to their small size, economic, non-hazardous and different biomedical applications. In the current study, we have evaluated the impacts of oxidative stress and proinflammatory markers of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles of Phyllanthus emblica (PE) leaves against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in wistar rats till 16 weeks with its underlying mechanism. The physico-chemical properties of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were determined by ultra-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Biofabricated silver nanoparticles (PEAgNPs) significantly enhanced the process of recovery from hepatic cancer in animal models, which was ascertained by increased body weight, reduced hepatic knobs on the outer surface of liver, downregulated serum biochemical parameters (ALT: 134.66 ± 2.60; AST: 120.33 ± 3.18; ALP: 153.33 ± 4.25; AFP: 167.33 ± 3.38), decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation (20.22 ± 1.74), increased membrane-bound enzymes (Na+/K+ATPase: 4.18 ± 0.20; Ca2+ATPase: 6.24 ± 0.12), increased antioxidants parameters (CAT: 64.89 ± 4.13; SOD: 6.01 ± 0.11; GPx: 8.55 ± 0.05), alteration in the level of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α: 90.15 ± 5.77; NF-κB: 173.29 ± 7.26; IL-6: 178.11 ± 3.16; IL-1β: 48.26 ± 1.89) and histopathological studies. Our outcomes implicate successfully biofabrication of silver nanoparticles and exhibited a chemoprotective potential in the prevention and intervention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Keywords

Silver nanoparticles Hepatocellular carcinoma Diethylnitrosamine NF-kB Phyllanthus emblica 

Abbreviations

AgNPs

Silver nanoparticles

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

DPPH

2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

DEN

Diethylnitrosamine

PEAgNPs

Phyllanthus emblica-embedded silver nanoparticles

FESEM

Field emission scanning electron microscope

FTIR

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

EDX

Energy dispersive X-ray analysis

SPR

Surface plasmon resonance

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

ALT

Alanine amino transferase

AST

Aspartate amino transferase

ALP

Alkaline phosphatise

GPx

Glutathione peroxidase

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

HCC

Hepatocellular carcinoma

AgNO3

Silver nitrate

DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide

MTT

3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide

AFP

Alpha feto protein

G6PD

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

MDA

Malondialdehyde

NADP

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

PEE

Phyllanthus leaves extract

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase

LPO

Lipid peroxidation

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are sincerely thankful to Sophisticated Analytical Instrumentation Facilities (SAIF), Punjab University, and Chandigarh for analysis, Maratha Mandal Dental College, Belgaum for help rendered in cytotoxic activity and Shalom Institute of Health and Allied Sciences, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad (U.P) for providing research facilities.

Author contributions

DS, MS and EY performed the experimental study. VK and AV analysed the biochemical parameters. NF edited the manuscript. All the authors contributed in the proof reading.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no potential conflict of interests.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bio-organic and Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Health SciencesSam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and SciencesAllahabadIndia
  2. 2.Natural Product Drug Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Health SciencesSam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and SciencesAllahabadIndia
  3. 3.HMFA Institute of Engineering and TechnologyAllahabadIndia

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