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Inflammopharmacology

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 313–328 | Cite as

Obesity, cardiovascular disease, and role of vitamin C on inflammation: a review of facts and underlying mechanisms

  • Mohammed S. ElluluEmail author
Review

Abstract

Obesity means the accumulation of excessive fat that may interfere with the maintenance of optimal state of health. Obesity causes cardiac and vascular disease through well-known mediators such as hypertension, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, but there are evidences for other mediators such as chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and thrombosis. The decreased levels of antioxidants factors and nitric oxide predispose to further cardiovascular adverse events. To reduce the risks, antioxidants can help by neutralizing the free radicals and protecting from damage by donating electrons. Having the capacity, vitamin C protects from oxidative stress, prevention of non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins, and enhances arterial dilation through its effect on nitric oxide release. It also decreases lipid peroxidation, and alleviates inflammation. The anti-inflammatory property of vitamin C could be attributed to ability to modulate the NF-kB DNA binding activity and down-regulation in the hepatic mRNA expression for the interleukins and tumor factors.

Keywords

Obesity Cardiovascular disease Metabolic syndrome Inflammation Oxidative stress Thrombosis Nitric oxide Antioxidant Vitamin C Ascorbic acid 

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

BP

Blood pressure

CHD

Coronary heart disease

CRP

C reactive protein

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

DBP

Diastolic blood pressure

FBG

Fasting blood glucose

FFAs

Free fatty acids

HDL

High density lipoprotein

HT

Hypertension

IGT

Impaired glucose tolerance

IL

Interleukin

LDL

Low density lipoprotein

MCP-1

Macrophage chemoattractant protein-1

MDA

Malondialdehyde

MI

Myocardial infarction

NF-kB

Nuclear factor kB

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NO

Nitric oxide

PAI-1

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

RCT

Randomized controlled trial

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SBP

Systolic blood pressure

SNPs

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms

T2DM

Type-2 diabetes mellitus

TC

Total cholesterol

TG

Triglyceride

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

WC

Waist circumference

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There are no significant competing professional or personal interests that might influence the performance or presentation of the work described in this manuscript.

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© Springer International Publishing 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)SerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Clinical Nutrition SpecialistGazaPalestine

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