, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 319–327 | Cite as

Resistance exercise and naproxen sodium: effects on a stable PGF metabolite and morphological adaptations of the upper body appendicular skeleton

  • Christi B. BrewerEmail author
  • John P. Bentley
  • Lainy B. Day
  • Dwight E. Waddell
Research Article



Exercise-induced inflammation has been shown to be necessary for successful skeletal muscle regeneration post-injury. Accordingly, numerous investigations have demonstrated consequences of COX-inhibitors, anti-inflammatory drugs which prevent prostaglandin formation. In addition to its roles in inflammation, prostaglandin F (PGF) also mediates vital regenerative processes The majority of research to report consequences of suppressing inflammation has utilized acute injury models in combination with acute COX-inhibitor administration. To address the limited research investigating regular consumption of COX-inhibitors over time in exercising humans, the purpose of this study was to determine effects of a non-selective COX-inhibitor on a PGF metabolite and morphological adaptations of the upper body appendicular skeleton during periodized resistance training. Twenty-three (N = 23) recreationally trained college-aged males were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 11) or naproxen sodium (n = 12). Treatments were prophylactically administered in double-blind fashion with supervised upper body resistance exercise performed twice per week for 6 weeks. Venous blood was sampled pre- and post-exercise and analyzed for 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto PGF using enzyme immunoassay. Factorial mixed-design repeated-measures ANOVAs were utilized to examine relative changes in the plasma PGF metabolite and upper body appendicular morphology over the training period.


Naproxen sodium significantly reduced the acute PGF metabolite response to exercise (p = 0.013); however, this effect diminished over time (p = 0.02), and both treatment groups exhibited significant increases in dominant arm skeletal muscle tissue (p = 0.037).


Despite acute inhibition of the PGF metabolite at early time points, naproxen sodium did not hinder positive morphological adaptations of the upper body in response to resistance training.


Inflammation COX-inhibitor Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) Naproxen sodium Resistance exercise Prostaglandin F 



The authors would like to acknowledge Lisa Huggins, R.Ph. for assistance with pharmaceutical aspects and placebo design, Andrea Johnson, Ph.D. for DXA scanning, and the participants for full commitment to the study for the required time.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical standard

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

IRB approved informed consent was provided by all participants.


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Copyright information

© Springer Basel 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christi B. Brewer
    • 1
    Email author
  • John P. Bentley
    • 2
  • Lainy B. Day
    • 3
  • Dwight E. Waddell
    • 4
  1. 1.Physical Education, Health, and RecreationEastern Washington UniversityCheneyUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy AdministrationSchool of Pharmacy, University of MississippiOxfordUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiologyUniversity of MississippiOxfordUSA
  4. 4.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of MississippiOxfordUSA

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