Advertisement

Inflammopharmacology

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 45–54 | Cite as

Effect of lycopene from Chlorella marina on high cholesterol-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in rats

  • G. L. Renju
  • G. Muraleedhara Kurup
  • C. H. Saritha Kumari
Research Article

Abstract

Even though the role of all-trans lycopene from tomato in controlling atherosclerosis was reported, but no report is available on the cis-isomer of lycopene obtained from an easily available source green algae Chlorella marina. So in this study, Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet were given standard drug lovastatin; algal lycopene (AL) (cis/all-trans 40:60) and tomato all-trans lycopene (TL) and the following parameters were studied. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides were decreased significantly and the high-density lipoprotein levels were increased on treatment with AL. The activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were found to be increased, whereas thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels were decreased in AL when compared to the drug and TL-treated rats. The activities of inflammatory marker enzymes like cyclooxygenase, 15-lipoxygenase in monocytes and myeloperoxidase, C-reactive protein and ceruloplasmin levels in serum were found to be decreased on treatment with AL. Histopathological studies revealed that lycopene from this alga could reduce fatty liver and aortic plaque when compared to the drug and TL. Algal lycopene showed very significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect in high-cholesterol fed rats. Therefore, AL from C. marina would be recommended for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

Keywords

Lycopene Chlorella marina Hypercholesterolemia Antioxidants Inflammation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We express gratitude to Jayaram V, Cytotechnologist, Dr. Girija’ s diagnostic laboratory, Attingal, Trivandrum, India for helping us with the histopathological evaluations.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. Aboul-Enein AM, EI-Baz FK, Ei-Baroty GS, Youssef AM, Abd EI-Baky HH (2003). Antioxidant activity of algal extracts on lipid peroxidation. J Med Sci 3:87–98Google Scholar
  2. Alshatwi AA, Al Obaaid MA, Al-Sedairy SA, Al-Assaf AH, Zhang JJ, Lei KY (2010) Tomato powder is more protective than lycopene supplement against lipid peroxidation in rats. Nutr Res 30:66–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arun SL, Kumar T, Balakrishnan M, Sadashivan P (2004) Hypolipidemic effect of Coriandrum Sativum L. in triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Indian J Exp Biol 42:909–912Google Scholar
  4. Axelrod B, Cheesebrough TM, Laakso S (1981) Lipoxygenase from soybean. Methods Enzymol 71:441–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barclay L, Lie D (2009) Antioxidants reduce pain, oxidative stress in chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology 136:149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bucolo G, David H (1973) Quantitative determination of serum triglycerides by the use of enzymes. Clin Chem 19:476–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Carlberg I, Mannervik B (1985) Glutathione reductase. In: Meister A (ed) Methods in enzymology, vol 113. Academic press, New York, pp 484–490Google Scholar
  8. Clinton SK, Emenhiser C, Schwartz SJ, Bostwick DG et al (1996) Cistrans lycopene isomers, carotenoids, and retinol in the human prostate. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 5:823–833Google Scholar
  9. Cooper AJ, Kristal BS (1997) Multiple roles of glutathione in the central nervous system. Biol Chem 378:793–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. DiMascio P, Kaiser S, Sies H (1998) Lycopene as the most efficient biological carotenoid singlet oxygen quencher. Arch Biochem Biophys 274:532–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dubois RN, Abramson SB, Crofford L, Gupta RA, Simon LS, Van De Putte LB, Lipsky PE (1998) Cyclooxygenase in biology and disease. FASEB J 12:1063–1073PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ellman GL (1959) Tissue sulphydryl groups. Arch Biochem Biophys 8:70–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ernst E, Hammerschmidt DE, Bagge U (1987) Leukocytes and the risk of ischemic disease. JAMA 257:2318–2324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Esterbauer H, Schaur RJ, Zollner H (1991) Chemistry and biochemistry of 4-hydroxynonenal malondialdehyde and related aldehydes. Free Rad Biol Med 11:81–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fish WW, Perkins Veazie P, Collins JK (2000) Extraction of lycopene from tomato paste. J Food Comp Anal 15:309–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fox PL, Mukhopadhyay C, Ehrenwald E (1995) Structure, oxidant activity, and cardiovascular mechanisms of human ceruloplasmin. Life Sci 56:1749–1758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18:499–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gorinstein S, Bartnikowska E, Kulasek G, Zemser M, Trakhtenberg S (1998) Dietary persimmon improves lipid metabolism in rats fed diets containing cholesterol. J Nutr 128:2023–2027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Grundy SM, Denke MA (1990) Dietary influences on serum lipids and lipoproteins. J Lipid Res 31:1149–1172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Gutteridge JMC, Halliwell B (1996) Antioxidants in nutrition: health and disease. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  21. Jeon S, Kim HK, Kim HJ et al (2007) Hypocholesterolemic and antioxidative effects of naringenin and its two metabolites in high-cholesterol fed rats. Transl Res 149:15–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan PN (1984) A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Indian J Biochem Biophys 21:130–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Krinsky NI (1998) The antioxidant and biological properties of the carotenoids. Ann NY Acad Sci 854:443–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee R, Niemann D (1996) Nutritional assessment, 2nd edn. Mosby, St LouisGoogle Scholar
  25. Lichtenthaler HK (1987) Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembrane. Methods Enzymol 147:350–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AC, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Malanga G, Calmanovici G, Puntarulo S (1997) Oxidative damage to chloroplasts from Chlorella vulgaris exposed to ultraviolet β-radiation. Physiol Plant 101:455–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mullane KM, Kraemer R, Smith B (1985) Myeloperoxidase activity as a quantitative assessment of neutrophil infiltration into ischaemic myocardium. J Pharmacol Methods 14:157–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. O’Brien KD, Chait A (1994) The biology of the artery wall in atherogenesis. Med Clin North Am 78:41–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Ohkawa H, Oshishi N, Yag K (1979) Assay of lipid peroxidation in animal tissue by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 95:351–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Podrez EA, Abu-Soud HM, Hazen SL (2000) Myeloperoxidase-generated oxidants and atherosclerosis. Free Rad Biol Med 28:1717–1725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Prasad K, Kalra J (1989) Experimental atherosclerosis and oxygen free radicals. Angiology 40:835–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Radhika A, Jacob SS, Sudhakaran PR (2007) Influence of oxidatively modified LDL on monocyte-macrophage differentiation. Mol Cell Biochem 305:133–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ravin HA (1961) An improved colorimetric enzymatic assay of ceruloplasmin. J Lab Clin Med 58:161–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Renju GL, Muraleedhara Kurup G, Saritha Kumari CH (2013) Anti-inflammatory activity of lycopene from Chlorella marina on type II collagen induced arthritis in Sprague dawley rats. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 35(2):282–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ridker PM, Cushman M, Stampfer MJ, Tracy RP, Hennekens CH (1997) Inflammation, aspirin, and the risk of cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy men. N Engl J Med 336:973–979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rissanen TH, Voutilainen S, Nyyssönen K, Salonen R, Kaplan GA, Salonen JT (2003) Serum lycopene concentrations and carotid atherosclerosis: the Kuopio ischaemic heart disease risk factor study. Am J Clin Nutr 77:133–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ross R (1993) The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: a perspective for the 1990s. Nature 362:801–809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ross R (1999) Atherosclerosis: an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 340:115–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Gasther HE (1973) Selenium-biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science 179:588–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Scalia R, Appel JZ, Lefer AM (1998) Leukocyte-endothelium interaction during the early stages of hypercholesterolemia in the rabbit: role of p-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 18:1093–1100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shaish A, Ben A, Avron M (1992) Biosynthesis of β carotene in Dunaliella. Methods Enzymol 213:439–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shimizu T, Kondo K, Hayaishi O (1984) Role of prostaglandin endoperoxidases in the serum thiobarbituric acid reaction. Arch Biochem Biophys 206:271–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stahl W, Sies H (1992) Uptake of lycopene and its geometrical isomers is greater from heat processed than from unprocessed tomato juice in humans. J Nutr 122:2161–2166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Takagi A, Sekita K, Saitoh M, Kanno J (2005) Acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity studies of a synthetic antioxidant, 2, 2′-isobutylidenebis (4, 6-dimethyl phenol) in rats. J Toxic Sci 30:275–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Takahara S, Hamilton BH, Nell JV, Kobara TY, Ogura Y, Nishimura ET (1960) Hypocatalasemia: a new genetic carrier states. J Clin Invest 29:610–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Toshima S, Hasegawa A, Kurabayashi M et al (2000) Circulating oxidized low density lipoprotein levels. A biochemical risk marker for coronary heart disease. J Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 20:2243–2247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vaskonen T, Mervaala E, Krogerus L, Karppanen H (2002) Supplementation of plant sterols and minerals benefits obese Zucker rats fed an atherogenic diet. J Nutr 132:231–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Venugopal SK, Devaraj S, Jialal I (2005) Effect of C-reactive protein on vascular cells: evidence for a proinflammatory, proatherogenic role. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 14:33–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Walne PR (1970) Studies on the food value of nineteen genera of algae to juvenile bivalves of the genera Ostrea, Crassostrea, Mercenaria, and Mytilus. Fish Invest 26:1–62Google Scholar
  51. Willerson JT, Ridker PM (2004) Inflammation as a cardiovascular risk factor. Circulation 109:II2–II10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yoshitaka T, Zhu H, Tanihiro Y (2005) Essential Roles of lipoxygenases in LDL oxidation and development of atherosclerosis. Antioxid Redox Signal 7:425–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Basel 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. L. Renju
    • 1
  • G. Muraleedhara Kurup
    • 1
  • C. H. Saritha Kumari
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryUniversity of KeralaTrivandrumIndia

Personalised recommendations