, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 219–224 | Cite as

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of β-sitosterol isolated from Nyctanthes arbortristis leaves

  • Sunil A. NirmalEmail author
  • Subodh C. Pal
  • Subhash C. Mandal
  • Anuja N. Patil
Research Article


Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. (Oleaceae) is one of the well-known Indian medicinal plant. Various extracts of leaves of the plant were screened for analgesic activity by hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhings and anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema method at the dose of 50 mg/kg, i.p. Petroleum ether extract was found to be most active and hence subjected to activity-guided fractionation. Results showed that β-sitosterol (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was responsible for the significant and dose-dependent activity comparable with the standard extract. β-Sitosterol from N. arbortristis leaves might be responsible for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.


Anti-inflammatory Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn β-Sitosterol 


  1. Aminuddin RD, Girach A, Khan S (1993) Treatment of malaria through herbal drugs from Orissa, India. Fitoterapia 64:545–548Google Scholar
  2. Badam L, Deolankar RP, Rajatkar SR, Nagasampagi BA, Wagh UV (1988) In vitro antimalarial activity of arbotristosides from Nyctanthes arbortristis. Indian J Med Res 87:379–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Chauhan JS (1978) A new glycoside from Nyctanthes arbortristis. J Indian Chem Soc 55:1049–1051Google Scholar
  4. Das S, Sasmal D, Basu SP (2008) Evaluation of CNS depressant activity of different plant parts of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. Indian J Pharm Sci 70:803–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dray A, Perkin M (1993) Bradykinin and inflammatory pain. Trends Neurosci 16:99–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Garcia MD, Fernandez MA, Alvarez A, Saenz MT (2004) Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous extract from leaves of Pimenta racemosa var. ozua (Mirtaceae). J Ethanopharmacol 91:2973Google Scholar
  7. Ghogare UR, Nirmal SA, Patil RY, Kharya MD (2009) Antinociceptive activity of Gynandropsis gynandra leaves. Nat Prod Res 23:327–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kiew R, Baas P (1984) Nyctanthes is a member of Oleaceae. Proc Indian Acad Sci 93:349–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD (2000) Indian medicinal plants, vol VII. Sri Satguru Publications, New Delhi, pp 2110–2113Google Scholar
  10. Koster R, Anderson M, de Beer EJ (1959) Acetic acid for analgesic screening. Fed Proc 18:412–418Google Scholar
  11. Nadkarni KM (1982) Indian materia medica, vol I, 3rd edn. Bombay Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd, Bombay, pp 115–116Google Scholar
  12. Nguelefack TB, Nanab P, Atsamoa AD, Dimob T, Watcho P, Dongmoc AB, Tapondjon LA, Njamenb D, Wansi SL, Kamanyi A (2006) Analgesic and anticonvulsant effect of extracts from leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haworth (Crassulaceae). J Ethanopharmacol 106:70–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nirmal SA, Pal SC, Mandal SC (2011) Antiasthmatic activity of Nyctanthes arbortristis leaves. Lat Am J Pharm 30(4):654–660Google Scholar
  14. Parkhouse J, Pleuvry BJ (1979) Analgesic drug. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  15. Rathore A, Juneja RK, Tandon JS (1989) An iridoid glucoside from Nyctanthes arbortristis. Phytochemistry 28(7):1913–1917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ratnasooriya WD, Jayakody JRAC, Hettiarachchi ADI, Dharmasiri MG (2005) Sedative effects of hot flower infusion of Nyctanthes arbo-tristis on rats. Pharm Biol 43:140–146Google Scholar
  17. Reisine T, Pasternack G (1996) Opioid analgesics and antagonists. In: Hardman JG, LE Limbird (eds) Goodman and Gilmans, the pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 9th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 5216Google Scholar
  18. Saxena RS, Gupta B, Lata S (2002) Tranquillizing, antihistaminic and purgative activity of Nyctanthes arbortristis leaf extract. J Ethanopharmacol 81:321–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Singh KL, Roy R, Srivastava V, Tandon JS, Mishra A (1995) A minor iridoid glucoside from Nyctanthes arbortristis. J Nat Prod 58:1562–1564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Singh S, Bani S, Singh GB, Gupta BD, Banerjee SK, Singh B (1997) Anti inflammatory activity of lupeol. Fitoterapia 68:9–16Google Scholar
  21. Stai HY, Chen YF, Wu TS (1995) Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of extract from roots of Angelica pubescens. Planta Med 61:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tandon JS, Srivastava V, Guru PY (1991) A new class of leishmanicidal agents from Nyctanthes arbortristis. J Nat Prod 54:1102–1104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Vinegar R, Schreiber W, Hugo R (1969) Biphasic development of carrageenan oedema in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 166:96–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW (1962) Carrageenin-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for antiiflammatory drugs. Proc Soc Expt Biol Med 111:544Google Scholar
  25. Woolfe G, MacDonald AD (1944) The evaluation of the analgesic action of pethidine hydrochloride (Dermol). J Pharmacol Exp Ther 80:300–330Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sunil A. Nirmal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Subodh C. Pal
    • 2
  • Subhash C. Mandal
    • 3
  • Anuja N. Patil
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacognosyPravara Rural College of PharmacyPravaranagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of PharmacognosyNDMVPs College of PharmacyNasikIndia
  3. 3.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Research LaboratoryJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations